Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30075
Evaluating Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: S. Hachemi, A. Ounis, S. Chabi


This paper presents the results of an experimental  study on the effects of elevated temperature on compressive and  flexural strength of Normal Strength Concrete (NSC), High Strength  Concrete (HSC) and High Performance Concrete (HPC). In addition,  the specimen mass and volume were measured before and after  heating in order to determine the loss of mass and volume during the  test. In terms of non-destructive measurement, ultrasonic pulse  velocity test was proposed as a promising initial inspection method  for fire damaged concrete structure. 100 Cube specimens for three  grades of concrete were prepared and heated at a rate of 3°C/min up  to different temperatures (150, 250, 400, 600, and 900°C). The results  show a loss of compressive and flexural strength for all the concretes  heated to temperature exceeding 400°C. The results also revealed that  mass and density of the specimen significantly reduced with an  increase in temperature.


Keywords: High temperature, Compressive strength, Mass loss, Ultrasonic pulse velocity.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1812


[1] H. L. Malhotra, "The Effects of Temperature on the Compressive Strength Concrete,” Magn. Concr. Res., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 85–94, 1956.
[2] C.A. Menzel, "Tests of the Fire Resistance and Thermal Properties of Solid Concrete Slabs and Their Significance,” Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Mater., vol. 43, pp. 1099-1153, 1943.
[3] Metin Husem, "The Effects of High Temperature on Compressive and Flexural Strengths of Ordinary and High-Perforce Concrete,” Fire Saf. J. vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 155–163, 2006.
[4] F. C. Lea, "Effect of Temperature on Some of the Properties of Material,” Engineering, vol. 110, pp. 293–298, 1920.
[5] H.L. Malhotra, "Effect of Temperature on Compressive Strength of Concrete,” Mag. Concr. Res., vol. 8, no. 23, pp. 85–94, 1956.
[6] M.S. Abrams, Compressive Strength of Concrete at Temperatures to 1600 F, Temperature and Concrete, SP-25, American Concrete Institute, 1971.
[7] C. Poon, S. Azhar, M. Anson, Y. Wong, "Comparison of the Strength and Durability Performance of Normal and High-Strength Pozzolanic Concretes at Elevated Temperatures,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 31, pp. 1291–1300, 2001.
[8] G. Hoff, A. Bilodeau, V. M. Malhotra, "Elevated Temperature Effects on HSC Residual Strength,” Concr. Int., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 41–47, 2000.
[9] S. Chan, G. Peng, M. Anson, "Fire Behavior of High-Performance Concrete Made with Silica Fume at Various Moisture Contents,” ACI Mater. J., vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 405–411, 1999.
[10] F. Cheng, V. K. Kodur, T. C. Wang, "Stress-Straincures for High-Strength Concrete at Elevated Temperatures,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 84–94, 2004.
[11] A. Behnood, "Effects of High Temperatures on the High-Strength Concretes Incorporating Copper Slag as Coarse Aggregate,” Seventh International Symposium on Utilization of High-Strength/Performance Concrete, SP-228-66, American Concrete Institute, Washington, 2005, pp. 1063–1075.
[12] L. T. Phan, N. J. Carino, "Effects of Test Conditions and Mixture Proportions on Behavior of High-Strength Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures,” ACI Mater. J., vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 54–66, 2002.
[13] C. Castillo, A. J. Durrani, "Effect of Transient High Temperature on High-Strength Concrete,” ACI Mater. J., vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 1990.
[14] U. Diederiches, U. M. Jumppanen, U. Schneider, "High Temperature Properties and Spalling Behavior of High Strength Concrete,” Proceedings of the Fourth Weimar Workshopon High Strength Concrete: Materials Properties and Design, Germany, 1995, pp. 237–254.
[15] R. Sarshar, G. A. Khoury, "Material and Environmental Factors Influencing the Compressive Strength of Unsealed Cement Paste and Concrete at High Temperatures,” Mag. Concr. Res., vol. 45, no. 162, pp. 51–61, 1993.
[16] R. Felicetti, P. G. Gambarova, "Effects of High Temperature on the Residual Compressive Strength of High-Strength Siliceous Concretes,” ACI Mater. J., 95, no. 4, pp. 395–406, 1998.
[17] R. Kowalski, "The Effects of the Cooling Rate on the Residual Properties of Heated-Up Concrete,” Struct. Concr., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 2007.
[18] Omer Arioz, "Effects of Elevated Temperatures on Properties of Concrete,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 42, pp. 516–522, 2007.
[19] C. J. Zega, A.A. Di Maio, "Recycled Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures,” Magn. Concr. Res., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 675–682, 1926.
[20] K.D. Hertz, "Concrete Strength for Fire Safety Design,” Magn. Concr. Res., vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 445–453, 2005.
[21] N. Yuzer, F. Akoz, L.D. Ozturk, "Compressive Strength-Colour Change Relation in Mortars at High Temperature,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 34, pp. 1803–1807, 2004.
[22] V. K. R. Kodur, M. A. Sultan, "Effect of Temperature on Thermal Properties High-Strength Concrete,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng. (ASCE), vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 101–107, 2003.
[23] Z.P. Bazant, M.F. Kaplan, Concrete at High Temperatures, Material Properties and Mathematical Models, Longman Group, Essex, 1996.
[24] M. F. M. Zaina, Md. Safiuddina, H. Mahmud, "Development of high Performance Concrete Using Silica Fume at Relatively High Water-Binder Ratios,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 30, pp. 1501–1505, 2000.
[25] Bing Chen, Chunling Li, Longzhu Chen., "Experimental Study of Mechanical Properties of Normal-Strength Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures at an Early Age,” Fire Safety Journal, vol. 44, pp. 997–1002, 2009.
[26] Ali Behnood, Masoud Ghandehari., "Comparison of Compressive and Splitting Tensile Strength of High-Strength Concrete with and without Polypropylene Fibers Heated to High Temperatures,” Fire Safety Journal, vol. 44, pp. 1015–1022, 2009.
[27] Gai-Fei Peng, Wen-Wu Yang, Jie Zhao, Ye-Feng Liu, Song-Hua Bian, Li-Hong Zhao, "Explosive Spalling and Residual Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Toughened High-Performance Concrete Subjected to High Temperatures,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 36, pp. 723–727, 2006.
[28] Y. N. Chan, G. F. Peng, M. Anson, "Residual Strength and Pore Structure of High-Strength Concrete and Normal Strength Concrete after Exposure to High Temperatures,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 21, pp. 23–27, 1999.
[29] D.R. Gardner, R.J. Lark, B. Barr, "Effect of Conditioning Temperature on the Strength and Permeability of Normal- and High-Strength Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 35, pp. 1400–1406, 2005.
[30] Hanaa Fares, Albert Noumowe, Sébastien Remond, "Self consolidation Concrete Subjected to High Temperature Mechanical and Physiochemical Properties,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 39, pp. 1230–1238, 2009.
[31] Sofren Leo Suhaendi, Takashi Horiguchi, "Effect of Short Fibers on Residual Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete after Heat Exposition,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 36, pp. 1672–1678, 2006.
[32] Jianzhuang Xiao, H. Falkner, "On Residual Strength of High-Performance Concrete with and without Polypropylene Fibres at Elevated Temperatures,” Fire Safety Journal, vol. 41, pp. 115–121, 2006.
[33] Leyla Tanaçan, Halit Yasa Ersoy, Ümit Arpacıoglu, "Effect of High Temperature and Cooling Condition on Aerated Concrete Properties,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 1240–1248, 2009.
[34] Reberto Felicetti, Pietro G. Gambarova, "Fire Design of Concrete Structures-Structural Behavior and Assessment,” International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib), 2008, pp. 63–114.