A Study of Cardio Pulmonary Changes during Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a commonly performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and has many adverse effects like cardiopulmonary complications, complications related to sedation, infectious complications, bleeding and perforation. So this study was undertaken to evaluate important variables like patient’s age, gender and stage of the procedure in relation to the cardiopulmonary changes during diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by monitoring oxygen saturation, blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram. This is a prospective longitudinal hospital based study involving a total of 140 consecutive patients, at Sri. B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre. Cardiopulmonary changes during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy are more common in the age groups of 51-60 years, with equal frequency in both male and female. Oxygen saturation levels decreased by about 4% in both sexes during introduction of endoscopy. Mild to moderate hypoxia was found in 32% of the study group. Severe hypoxia was found in 5% of the patients, mostly in those patients who are above 50 years of age. Tachycardia was noted in 88% of the study group patients. Blood pressure increased to hypertension levels in 22 patients (15.7%) which returned to normal within few minutes after the procedure. S-T depression was noticed in 4% of patients and T wave inversion in 8% of patients during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All these changes disappeared after 10 minutes after the endoscopy. Cardiopulmonary changes are common during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Maximum changes in oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure occurred immediately after the introduction of endoscope. The cardiopulmonary changes did not manifest into any identifiable clinical symptoms. The rate of recovery was faster in younger age groups and women.
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