Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 362

Search results for: Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

362 A Study of Cardio Pulmonary Changes during Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Authors: Sharan Badiger, Prema T. Akkasaligar, P. Amith Kumar

Abstract:

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a commonly performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and has many adverse effects like cardiopulmonary complications, complications related to sedation, infectious complications, bleeding and perforation. So this study was undertaken to evaluate important variables like patient’s age, gender and stage of the procedure in relation to the cardiopulmonary changes during diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by monitoring oxygen saturation, blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram. This is a prospective longitudinal hospital based study involving a total of 140 consecutive patients, at Sri. B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre. Cardiopulmonary changes during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy are more common in the age groups of 51-60 years, with equal frequency in both male and female. Oxygen saturation levels decreased by about 4% in both sexes during introduction of endoscopy. Mild to moderate hypoxia was found in 32% of the study group. Severe hypoxia was found in 5% of the patients, mostly in those patients who are above 50 years of age. Tachycardia was noted in 88% of the study group patients. Blood pressure increased to hypertension levels in 22 patients (15.7%) which returned to normal within few minutes after the procedure. S-T depression was noticed in 4% of patients and T wave inversion in 8% of patients during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All these changes disappeared after 10 minutes after the endoscopy. Cardiopulmonary changes are common during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Maximum changes in oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure occurred immediately after the introduction of endoscope. The cardiopulmonary changes did not manifest into any identifiable clinical symptoms. The rate of recovery was faster in younger age groups and women.

Keywords: Blood Pressure, Cardio-Pulmonary, Heart Rate, Oxygen Saturation, Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

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361 Relationship between Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Risk Factors: A Biomechanical Analysis

Authors: Dae Gon Woo, Han Sung Kim, Dohyung Lim, Dong Jin Seo, In Deok Kong, Chang Yong Ko

Abstract:

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) affect millions of people spread all age regardless of race and sex. Emotional stress and obesity have been associated with increased reporting of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but the relationship between FGID and risk factors (emotional stress or obesity) is unclear. Our aim was to assess the changes of the mechanical characteristics on the gastrointestinal tracts of the mentally fatigued obese and normal rat models. Finally, using the physical characteristics with micro-indentation test, we made a close investigation into the relation between FGID and risk factors quantitatively.

Keywords: Functional gastrointestinal disorders, Risk Factors, Mechanical Characteristics, Gastrointestinal Tract.

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360 Implementation of Edge Detection Based on Autofluorescence Endoscopic Image of Field Programmable Gate Array

Authors: Hao Cheng, Zhiwu Wang, Guozheng Yan, Pingping Jiang, Shijia Qin, Shuai Kuang

Abstract:

Autofluorescence Imaging (AFI) is a technology for detecting early carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract in recent years. Compared with traditional white light endoscopy (WLE), this technology greatly improves the detection accuracy of early carcinogenesis, because the colors of normal tissues are different from cancerous tissues. Thus, edge detection can distinguish them in grayscale images. In this paper, based on the traditional Sobel edge detection method, optimization has been performed on this method which considers the environment of the gastrointestinal, including adaptive threshold and morphological processing. All of the processes are implemented on our self-designed system based on the image sensor OV6930 and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), The system can capture the gastrointestinal image taken by the lens in real time and detect edges. The final experiments verified the feasibility of our system and the effectiveness and accuracy of the edge detection algorithm.

Keywords: AFI, edge detection, adaptive threshold, morphological processing, OV6930, FPGA.

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359 Real-Time Image Analysis of Capsule Endoscopy for Bleeding Discrimination in Embedded System Platform

Authors: Yong-Gyu Lee, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Image processing for capsule endoscopy requires large memory and it takes hours for diagnosis since operation time is normally more than 8 hours. A real-time analysis algorithm of capsule images can be clinically very useful. It can differentiate abnormal tissue from health structure and provide with correlation information among the images. Bleeding is our interest in this regard and we propose a method of detecting frames with potential bleeding in real-time. Our detection algorithm is based on statistical analysis and the shapes of bleeding spots. We tested our algorithm with 30 cases of capsule endoscopy in the digestive track. Results were excellent where a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 97% were achieved in detecting the image frames with bleeding spots.

Keywords: bleeding, capsule endoscopy, image processing, real time analysis

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358 Bleeding Detection Algorithm for Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Yong-Gyu Lee, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Automatic detection of bleeding is of practical importance since capsule endoscopy produces an extremely large number of images. Algorithm development of bleeding detection in the digestive tract is difficult due to different contrasts among the images, food dregs, secretion and others. In this study, were assigned weighting factors derived from the independent features of the contrast and brightness between bleeding and normality. Spectral analysis based on weighting factors was fast and accurate. Results were a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 90% when the accuracy was determined for each pixel out of 42 endoscope images.

Keywords: bleeding, capsule endoscopy, image analysis, weighted spectrum

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357 Image Processing Using Color and Object Information for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Jin-Hee Park, Yong-Gyu Lee, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Wireless capsule endoscopy provides real-time images in the digestive tract. Capsule images are usually low resolution and are diverse images due to travel through various regions of human body. Color information has been a primary reference in predicting abnormalities such as bleeding. Often color is not sufficient for this purpose. In this study, we took morphological shapes into account as additional, but important criterion. First, we processed gastric images in order to indentify various objects in the image. Then, we analyzed color information in the object. In this way, we could remove unnecessary information and increase the accuracy. Compared to our previous investigations, we could handle images of various degrees of brightness and improve our diagnostic algorithm.

Keywords: Capsule Endoscopy, HSV model, Image processing, Object Identification, Color Separation.

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356 Ultrasonic System for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Development, Verification and Clinical Trials

Authors: Eun-Geun Kim, Won-Pil Park, Dae-Gon Woo, Chang-Yong Ko, Yong-Heum Lee, Dohyung Lim, Tae-Min Shin, Han-Sung Kim, Gyoun-Jung Lee

Abstract:

Functional gastrointestinal disorders affect millions of people spread all age regardless of race and sex. There are, however, rare diagnostic methods for the functional gastrointestinal disorders because functional disorders show no evidence of organic and physical causes. Our research group identified recently that the gastrointestinal tract well in the patients with the functional gastrointestinal disorders becomes more rigid than healthy people when palpating the abdominal regions overlaying the gastrointestinal tract. Aim of this study is, therefore, to develop a diagnostic system for the functional gastrointestinal disorders based on ultrasound technique, which can quantify the characteristic above related to the rigidity of the gastrointestinal tract well. Ultrasound system was designed. The system consisted of transmitter, ultrasonic transducer, receiver, TGC, and CPLD, and verified via a phantom test. For the phantom test, ten soft-tissue specimens were harvested from porcine. Five of them were then treated chemically to mimic a rigid condition of gastrointestinal tract well, which was induced by functional gastrointestinal disorders. Additionally, the specimens were tested mechanically to identify if the mimic was reasonable. The customized ultrasound system was finally verified through application to human subjects with/without functional gastrointestinal disorders (Normal and Patient Groups). It was identified from the mechanical test that the chemically treated specimens were more rigid than normal specimen. This finding was favorably compared with the result obtained from the phantom test. The phantom test also showed that ultrasound system well described the specimen geometric characteristics and detected an alteration in the specimens. The maximum amplitude of the ultrasonic reflective signal in the rigid specimens (0.2±0.1Vp-p) at the interface between the fat and muscle layers was explicitly higher than that in the normal specimens (0.1±0.0Vp-p). Clinical tests using our customized ultrasound system for human subject showed that the maximum amplitudes of the ultrasonic reflective signals near to the gastrointestinal tract well for the patient group (2.6±0.3Vp-p) were generally higher than those in normal group (0.1±0.2Vp-p). Here, maximum reflective signals was appeared at 20mm depth approximately from abdominal skin for all human subjects, corresponding to the location of the boundary layer close to gastrointestinal tract well. These results suggest that newly designed diagnostic system based on ultrasound technique may diagnose enough the functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Keywords: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, DiagnosticSystem, Phantom Test, Ultrasound System.

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355 Incidence of Gastrointestinal Parasites among Workers in Major Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: L. B. Gboeloh, K. Elele

Abstract:

Gastrointestinal parasitic infections are common health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross- sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among workers in major abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. These abattoirs are located in Trans-Amadi, Rumuodumaya, Mile III and Easter-by-Pass. Formol-ether concentration technique was used to isolate the ova and cysts from faecal samples. Out of 201 workers (herdsmen, butchers, and cleaners) investigated for the presence of these parasites, 89 (44.2%) were infected with one or more parasites. The prevalence of the parasites among herdsmen and cleaners was significantly (P<0.05) higher. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in relation to age. Parasites identified included Ascaris lumbricoide (33.3%), tapeworm (4.97%), Entamoeba histolytica (5.47%), hookworms (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (9.95%), Gardia lamblia (3.48%), and Schistosoma mansoni (1.9%). The frequency of A. lumbricoide was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other parasites. Many workers (65.2%) had single infection than double (23.6%) and triple infection (11.2%). Sanitary improvements, increased level of personal hygiene, routine surveillance by public health practitioners and veterinary experts as well as hygienic operation using modern technologies to process meat at these abattoirs will go a long way to control occupational gastrointestinal parasites among workers.

Keywords: Abattoirs, Gastrointestinal parasites, Port Harcourt, Workers.

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354 Estimation of the Upper Tail Dependence Coefficient for Insurance Loss Data Using an Empirical Copula-Based Approach

Authors: Adrian O’Hagan, Robert McLoughlin

Abstract:

Considerable focus in the world of insurance risk quantification is placed on modeling loss values from lines of business (LOBs) that possess upper tail dependence. Copulas such as the Joe, Gumbel and Student-t copula may be used for this purpose. The copula structure imparts a desired level of tail dependence on the joint distribution of claims from the different LOBs. Alternatively, practitioners may possess historical or simulated data that already exhibit upper tail dependence, through the impact of catastrophe events such as hurricanes or earthquakes. In these circumstances, it is not desirable to induce additional upper tail dependence when modeling the joint distribution of the loss values from the individual LOBs. Instead, it is of interest to accurately assess the degree of tail dependence already present in the data. The empirical copula and its associated upper tail dependence coefficient are presented in this paper as robust, efficient means of achieving this goal.

Keywords: Empirical copula, extreme events, insurance loss reserving, upper tail dependence coefficient.

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353 Algorithm for Bleeding Determination Based On Object Recognition and Local Color Features in Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Yong-Gyu Lee, Jin Hee Park, Youngdae Seo, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Automatic determination of blood in less bright or noisy capsule endoscopic images is difficult due to low S/N ratio. Especially it may not be accurate to analyze these images due to the influence of external disturbance. Therefore, we proposed detection methods that are not dependent only on color bands. In locating bleeding regions, the identification of object outlines in the frame and features of their local colors were taken into consideration. The results showed that the capability of detecting bleeding was much improved.

Keywords: Endoscopy, object recognition, bleeding, image processing, RGB.

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352 The Lower and Upper Approximations in a Group

Authors: Zhaohao Wang, Lan Shu

Abstract:

In this paper, we generalize some propositions in [C.Z. Wang, D.G. Chen, A short note on some properties of rough groups, Comput. Math. Appl. 59(2010)431-436.] and we give some equivalent conditions for rough subgroups. The notion of minimal upper rough subgroups is introduced and a equivalent characterization is given, which implies the rough version of Lagranges Theorem.

Keywords: Lower approximations, Upper approximations, Rough sets, Rough groups, Lagrange

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351 Some New Upper Bounds for the Spectral Radius of Iterative Matrices

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Xue Li, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present some new upper bounds for the spectral radius of iterative matrices based on the concept of doubly α diagonally dominant matrix. And subsequently, we give two examples to show that our results are better than the earlier ones.

Keywords: doubly α diagonally dominant matrix, eigenvalue, iterative matrix, spectral radius, upper bound.

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350 Upper Bound of the Generalize p-Value for the Behrens-Fisher Problem with a Known Ratio of Variances

Authors: Rada Somkhuean, Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the Behrens-Fisher problem when a ratio of variance is known. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.

Keywords: Generalized p-value, hypothesis testing, ratio of variances, upper bound.

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349 Suggestion of Ultrasonic System for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Finite Difference Analysis, Development and Clinical Trials

Authors: Won-Pil Park, Qyoun-Jung Lee, Dae-Gon Woo, Chang-Yong Ko, Eun-Geun Kim, Dohyung Lim, Yong-Heum Lee, Tae-Min Shin, Han-Sung Kim

Abstract:

The disaster from functional gastrointestinal disorders has detrimental impact on the quality of life of the effected population and imposes a tremendous social and economic burden. There are, however, rare diagnostic methods for the functional gastrointestinal disorders. Our research group identified recently that the gastrointestinal tract well in the patients with the functional gastrointestinal disorders becomes more rigid than healthy people when palpating the abdominal regions overlaying the gastrointestinal tract. Objective of current study is, therefore, identify feasibility of a diagnostic system for the functional gastrointestinal disorders based on ultrasound technique, which can quantify the characteristics above. Two-dimensional finite difference (FD) models (one normal and two rigid model) were developed to analyze the reflective characteristic (displacement) on each soft-tissue layer responded after application of ultrasound signals. The FD analysis was then based on elastic ultrasound theory. Validation of the model was performed via comparison of the characteristic of the ultrasonic responses predicted by FD analysis with that determined from the actual specimens for the normal and rigid conditions. Based on the results from FD analysis, ultrasound system for diagnosis of the functional gastrointestinal disorders was developed and clinically tested via application of it to 40 human subjects with/without functional gastrointestinal disorders who were assigned to Normal and Patient Groups. The FD models were favorably validated. The results from FD analysis showed that the maximum displacement amplitude in the rigid models (0.12 and 0.16) at the interface between the fat and muscle layers was explicitly less than that in the normal model (0.29). The results from actual specimens showed that the maximum amplitude of the ultrasonic reflective signal in the rigid models (0.2±0.1Vp-p) at the interface between the fat and muscle layers was explicitly higher than that in the normal model (0.1±0.2 Vp-p). Clinical tests using our customized ultrasound system showed that the maximum amplitudes of the ultrasonic reflective signals near to the gastrointestinal tract well for the patient group (2.6±0.3 Vp-p) were generally higher than those in normal group (0.1±0.2 Vp-p). Here, maximum reflective signals was appeared at 20mm depth approximately from abdominal skin for all human subjects, corresponding to the location of the boundary layer close to gastrointestinal tract well. These findings suggest that our customized ultrasound system using the ultrasonic reflective signal may be helpful to the diagnosis of the functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Keywords: Finite Difference (FD) Analysis, FunctionalGastrointestinal Disorders, Gastrointestinal Tract, UltrasonicResponses.

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348 Improvement of Blood Detection Accuracy using Image Processing Techniques suitable for Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Yong-Gyu Lee, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Bleeding in the digestive duct is an important diagnostic parameter for patients. Blood in the endoscopic image can be determined by investigating the color tone of blood due to the degree of oxygenation, under- or over- illumination, food debris and secretions, etc. However, we found that how to pre-process raw images obtained from the capsule detectors was very important. We applied various image process methods suitable for the capsule endoscopic image in order to remove noises and unbalanced sensitivities for the image pixels. The results showed that much improvement was achieved by additional pre-processing techniques on the algorithm of determining bleeding areas.

Keywords: blood detection, capsule endoscopy, image processing.

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347 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith

Abstract:

This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: Exoskeleton-upper limb system, gravity compensation, model free terminal sliding mode, robustness analysis, Monte Carlo, H∞ methods.

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346 CFD Simulation for Flow Behavior in Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Upper Pool under Decommissioning Condition

Authors: Y. T. Ku, S. W. Chen, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, Y. F. Chang

Abstract:

In order to respond the policy decision of non-nuclear homes, Tai Power Company (TPC) will provide the decommissioning project of Kuosheng Nuclear power plant (KSNPP) to meet the regulatory requirement in near future. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology has been employed to develop a flow prediction model for boiling water reactor (BWR) with upper pool under decommissioning stage. The model can be utilized to investigate the flow behavior as the vessel combined with upper pool and continuity cooling system. At normal operating condition, different parameters are obtained for the full fluid area, including velocity, mass flow, and mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and upper pool. Through the efforts of the study, an integrated simulation model will be developed for flow field analysis of decommissioning KSNPP under normal operating condition. It can be expected that a basis result for future analysis application of TPC can be provide from this study.

Keywords: CFD, BWR, decommissioning, upper pool.

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345 Multiplicative Functional on Upper Triangular Fuzzy Matrices

Authors: Liu Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, for an arbitrary multiplicative functional f from the set of all upper triangular fuzzy matrices to the fuzzy algebra, we prove that there exist a multiplicative functional F and a functional G from the fuzzy algebra to the fuzzy algebra such that the image of an upper triangular fuzzy matrix under f can be represented as the product of all the images of its main diagonal elements under F and other elements under G.

Keywords: Multiplicative functional, triangular fuzzy matrix, fuzzy addition operation, fuzzy multiplication operation.

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344 Effects of ECCS on the Cold-Leg Fluid Temperature during SGTR Accidents

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The LSTF experiment simulating the SGTR accident at the Mihama Unit-2 reactor is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In the accident, and thus in the experiment, the ECC water was injected not only into the cold legs but into the upper plenum. Overall transients during the experiment such as pressures and fluid temperatures are simulated well by the code. The cold-leg fluid temperatures are shown to decrease if the upper plenum injection system is connected to the cold leg. It is found that the cold-leg fluid temperatures also decrease if the upper-plenum injection is not used and the cold-leg injection alone is actuated.

Keywords: SGTR, LSTF, RELAP5, ECCS.

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343 A Questionnaire-Based Survey: Therapist’s Response towards the Upper Limb Disorder Learning Tool

Authors: Noor Ayuni Che Zakaria, Takashi Komeda, Cheng Yee Low, Kaoru Inoue, Fazah Akhtar Hanapiah

Abstract:

Previous studies have shown that there are arguments regarding the reliability and validity of the Ashworth and Modified Ashworth Scale towards evaluating patients diagnosed with upper limb disorders. These evaluations depended on the raters’ experiences. This initiated us to develop an upper limb disorder part-task trainer that is able to simulate consistent upper limb disorders, such as spasticity and rigidity signs, based on the Modified Ashworth Scale to improve the variability occurring between raters and intra-raters themselves. By providing consistent signs, novice therapists would be able to increase training frequency and exposure towards various levels of signs. A total of 22 physiotherapists and occupational therapists participated in the study. The majority of the therapists agreed that with current therapy education, they still face problems with inter-raters and intra-raters variability (strongly agree 54%; n = 12/22, agree 27%; n = 6/22) in evaluating patients’ conditions. The therapists strongly agreed (72%; n = 16/22) that therapy trainees needed to increase their frequency of training; therefore believe that our initiative to develop an upper limb disorder training tool will help in improving the clinical education field (strongly agree and agree 63%; n = 14/22).

Keywords: Upper limb disorders, Clinical education tool, Inter/intra-raters variability, Spasticity, Modified Ashworth Scale.

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342 Systematic Analysis of Dynamic Association of Health Outcomes with Computer Usage for Office Staff

Authors: Xiaoshu Lu, Esa-Pekka Takala, Risto Toivonen

Abstract:

This paper systematically investigates the timedependent health outcomes for office staff during computer work using the developed mathematical model. The model describes timedependent health outcomes in multiple body regions associated with computer usage. The association is explicitly presented with a doseresponse relationship which is parametrized by body region parameters. Using the developed model we perform extensive investigations of the health outcomes statically and dynamically. We compare the risk body regions and provide various severity rankings of the discomfort rate changes with respect to computer-related workload dynamically for the study population. Application of the developed model reveals a wide range of findings. Such broad spectrum of investigations in a single report literature is lacking. Based upon the model analysis, it is discovered that the highest average severity level of the discomfort exists in neck, shoulder, eyes, shoulder joint/upper arm, upper back, low back and head etc. The biggest weekly changes of discomfort rates are in eyes, neck, head, shoulder, shoulder joint/upper arm and upper back etc. The fastest discomfort rate is found in neck, followed by shoulder, eyes, head, shoulder joint/upper arm and upper back etc. Most of our findings are consistent with the literature, which demonstrates that the developed model and results are applicable and valuable and can be utilized to assess correlation between the amount of computer-related workload and health risk.

Keywords: Computer-related workload, health outcomes, dynamic association, dose-response relationship, systematic analysis.

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341 The Study of Relative Efficiency in Growth Curve Model

Authors: Nan Chen, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In this paper, some relative efficiency have been discussed, including the LSE estimate with respect to BLUE in curve model. Four new kinds of relative efficiency have defined, and their upper bounds have been discussed.

Keywords: Relative efficiency, LSE estimate, BLUE estimate, Upper bound, Curve model.

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340 Behrens-Fisher Problem with One Variance Unknown

Authors: Sa-aat Niwitpong, Rada Somkhuean, Suparat Niwitpong

Abstract:

This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the Behrens-Fisher problem when one variance is unknown. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.

Keywords: Generalized p-value, hypothesis testing, upper bound.

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339 Neuro-fuzzy Classification System for Wireless-Capsule Endoscopic Images

Authors: Vassilis S. Kodogiannis, John N. Lygouras

Abstract:

In this research study, an intelligent detection system to support medical diagnosis and detection of abnormal lesions by processing endoscopic images is presented. The images used in this study have been obtained using the M2A Swallowable Imaging Capsule - a patented, video color-imaging disposable capsule. Schemes have been developed to extract texture features from the fuzzy texture spectra in the chromatic and achromatic domains for a selected region of interest from each color component histogram of endoscopic images. The implementation of an advanced fuzzy inference neural network which combines fuzzy systems and artificial neural networks and the concept of fusion of multiple classifiers dedicated to specific feature parameters have been also adopted in this paper. The achieved high detection accuracy of the proposed system has provided thus an indication that such intelligent schemes could be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool in endoscopy.

Keywords: Medical imaging, Computer aided diagnosis, Endoscopy, Neuro-fuzzy networks, Fuzzy integral.

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338 Parameter Selections of Fuzzy C-Means Based on Robust Analysis

Authors: Kuo-Lung Wu

Abstract:

The weighting exponent m is called the fuzzifier that can have influence on the clustering performance of fuzzy c-means (FCM) and mÎ[1.5,2.5] is suggested by Pal and Bezdek [13]. In this paper, we will discuss the robust properties of FCM and show that the parameter m will have influence on the robustness of FCM. According to our analysis, we find that a large m value will make FCM more robust to noise and outliers. However, if m is larger than the theoretical upper bound proposed by Yu et al. [14], the sample mean will become the unique optimizer. Here, we suggest to implement the FCM algorithm with mÎ[1.5,4] under the restriction when m is smaller than the theoretical upper bound.

Keywords: Fuzzy c-means, robust, fuzzifier.

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337 A New Gateway for Rheumatoid Arthritis: COXIBs with an Improved Cardiovascular Profile

Authors: M. Hoxha, V. Capra, C. Buccellati, A. Sala, C. Cena, R. Fruttero, M. Bertinaria, G. E. Rovati

Abstract:

Today COXIBs are used in the treatment of arthritis and many other painful conditions in selected patients with high gastrointestinal risk and low cardiovascular (CV) risk. Previously, we have identified an unexpected mechanism of action of a traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (diclofenac) and a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COXIB) (lumiracoxib) demonstrating that they possess weak competitive antagonism at the thromboxane receptor (TP). We hypothesize that modifying the structure of a known COXIB so that it becomes also a more potent TP antagonist will preserve the anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal safety typical of COXIBs and prevent the CV risk associated with long term therapy.

Keywords: Cyclooxygenase, inflammation, lumiracoxib, thromboxane A2.

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336 Stature Prediction Model Based On Hand Anthropometry

Authors: Arunesh Chandra, Pankaj Chandna, Surinder Deswal, Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Rajender Kumar

Abstract:

The arm length, hand length, hand breadth and middle finger length of 1540 right-handed industrial workers of Haryana state was used to assess the relationship between the upper limb dimensions and stature. Initially, the data were analyzed using basic univariate analysis and independent t-tests; then simple and multiple linear regression models were used to estimate stature using SPSS (version 17). There was a positive correlation between upper limb measurements (hand length, hand breadth, arm length and middle finger length) and stature (p < 0.01), which was highest for hand length. The accuracy of stature prediction ranged from ± 54.897 mm to ± 58.307 mm. The use of multiple regression equations gave better results than simple regression equations. This study provides new forensic standards for stature estimation from the upper limb measurements of male industrial workers of Haryana (India). The results of this research indicate that stature can be determined using hand dimensions with accuracy, when only upper limb is available due to any reasons likewise explosions, train/plane crashes, mutilated bodies, etc. The regression formula derived in this study will be useful for anatomists, archaeologists, anthropologists, design engineers and forensic scientists for fairly prediction of stature using regression equations.

Keywords: Anthropometric dimensions, Forensic identification, Industrial workers, Stature prediction.

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335 Design of High Torque Elbow Joint for Above Elbow Prosthesis

Authors: Irfan Hussain, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umar S. Khan

Abstract:

Above Elbow Prosthesis is one of the most commonly amputated or missing limbs. The research is done for modelling techniques of upper limb prosthesis and design of high torque, light weight and compact in size elbow actuator. The purposed actuator consists of a DC motor, planetary gear set and a harmonic drive. The calculations show that the actuator is good enough to be used in real life powered prosthetic upper limb or rehabilitation exoskeleton.

Keywords: Above Elbow prosthesis, Harmonic drive, Planetarygear set, Sagittal Plane

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334 The Relative Efficiency of Parameter Estimation in Linear Weighted Regression

Authors: Baoguang Tian, Nan Chen

Abstract:

A new relative efficiency in linear model in reference is instructed into the linear weighted regression, and its upper and lower bound are proposed. In the linear weighted regression model, for the best linear unbiased estimation of mean matrix respect to the least-squares estimation, two new relative efficiencies are given, and their upper and lower bounds are also studied.

Keywords: Linear weighted regression, Relative efficiency, Mean matrix, Trace.

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333 Burnout Recognition for Call Center Agents by Using Skin Color Detection with Hand Poses

Authors: El Sayed A. Sharara, A. Tsuji, K. Terada

Abstract:

Call centers have been expanding and they have influence on activation in various markets increasingly. A call center’s work is known as one of the most demanding and stressful jobs. In this paper, we propose the fatigue detection system in order to detect burnout of call center agents in the case of a neck pain and upper back pain. Our proposed system is based on the computer vision technique combined skin color detection with the Viola-Jones object detector. To recognize the gesture of hand poses caused by stress sign, the YCbCr color space is used to detect the skin color region including face and hand poses around the area related to neck ache and upper back pain. A cascade of clarifiers by Viola-Jones is used for face recognition to extract from the skin color region. The detection of hand poses is given by the evaluation of neck pain and upper back pain by using skin color detection and face recognition method. The system performance is evaluated using two groups of dataset created in the laboratory to simulate call center environment. Our call center agent burnout detection system has been implemented by using a web camera and has been processed by MATLAB. From the experimental results, our system achieved 96.3% for upper back pain detection and 94.2% for neck pain detection.

Keywords: Call center agents, fatigue, skin color detection, face recognition.

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