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Calculation of the Forces Acting on the Knee Joint When Rising from Kneeling Positions (Effects of the Leg Alignment and the Arm Assistance on the Knee Joint Forces)

Authors: S. Hirokawa, M. Fukunaga, M. Mawatari


Knee joint forces are available by in vivo measurement using an instrumented knee prosthesis for small to moderate knee flexion but not for high flexion yet. We created a 2D mathematical model of the lower limb incorporating several new features such as a patello-femoral mechanism, a thigh-calf contact at high knee flexion and co-contracting muscles' force ratio, then used it to determine knee joint forces arising from high knee flexions in four kneeling conditions: rising with legs in parallel, with one foot forward, with or without arm use. With arms used, the maximum values of knee joint force decreased to about 60% of those with arms not used. When rising with one foot forward, if arms are not used, the forward leg sustains a force as large as that sustained when rising with legs parallel.

Keywords: Biomechanics, mathematical model, Knee joint force, kneeling

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