Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31533
400 kW Six Analytical High Speed Generator Designs for Smart Grid Systems

Authors: A. El Shahat, A. Keyhani, H. El Shewy


High Speed PM Generators driven by micro-turbines are widely used in Smart Grid System. So, this paper proposes comparative study among six classical, optimized and genetic analytical design cases for 400 kW output power at tip speed 200 m/s. These six design trials of High Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (HSPMSGs) are: Classical Sizing; Unconstrained optimization for total losses and its minimization; Constrained optimized total mass with bounded constraints are introduced in the problem formulation. Then a genetic algorithm is formulated for obtaining maximum efficiency and minimizing machine size. In the second genetic problem formulation, we attempt to obtain minimum mass, the machine sizing that is constrained by the non-linear constraint function of machine losses. Finally, an optimum torque per ampere genetic sizing is predicted. All results are simulated with MATLAB, Optimization Toolbox and its Genetic Algorithm. Finally, six analytical design examples comparisons are introduced with study of machines waveforms, THD and rotor losses.

Keywords: High Speed, Micro - Turbines, Optimization, PM Generators, Smart Grid, MATLAB.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2173


[1] Ali Keyhani, Mohammad N. Marwali, and Min Dai, "Integration of Green and Renewable Energy in Electric Power Systems," Wiley, January 2010
[2] Ali Keyhani, "Cyber-Controlled Smart Microgrid Systems of the Future: The High Penetration of Renewable and Green Energy Sources", New Research Directions for Future Cyber-Physical Energy Systems, Sheraton Baltimore City Center Hotel Baltimore, Maryland, June 2009
[3] Ali Keyhani, Jin-Woo Jung, Min Dai, "Control of Renewable Energy Sources in Smart Grid Systems," Smart Grids Africa,28-30 July 2008, Johannesburg, South Africa
[4] Ahmad, R. A., Pan, Z., and Saban, D. M., "On-Board Electrical Network Topology Using High Speed Permanent Magnet Generators," Electric Ship Technologies Symposium, 2007. ESTS apos;07. IEEE Volume , Issue , 21-23, pp.356 - 362, May 2007.
[5] Scridon, S., Boldea, I., Tutelea, Blaabjerg, L., F., and Ritchie, E., "BEGA - A Biaxial Excitation Generator for Automobiles: Comprehensive Characterization and Test Results," IAS, 2004, Industry Applications Conference, 2004. 39th IAS Annual Meeting Conference Record of the 2004 IEEE, vol.3, pp. 1682 - 1690, 3-7 Oct. 2004.
[6] Binder, A., Schneider, T., and Klohr, M., "Fixation of Buried and Surface- Mounted Magnets in High-Speed Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines," IEEE Trans. On Industry Applications, Vol. 42, NO. 4, pp. 1031 - 1037, July/August, 2006.
[7] Hosseini, S. M., Mirsalim, M. A., and Mirzaei, M. , "Design, Prototyping, and Analysis of a Low Cost Axial-Flux Coreless Permanent-Magnet Generator," IEEE Trans. On Magnet., Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 75 - 80, Jan. 2008.
[8] Mellor, P.H., Burrow, S.G., Sawata, T., and Holme, M., "A Wide - Speed - Range Hybrid Variable - Reluctance / Permanent - Magnet Generator for Future Embedded Aircraft Generation Systems," IEEE Trans. On Industry Applications, Vol. 41, No. 2, PP. 551 - 556, March/April 2005.
[9] Sadeghierad, M., Lesani, H., Monsef, H., and Darabi, A., "Design considerations of High Speed Axial Flux permanent magnet Generator with Coreless Stator," The 8th International Power Engineering Conference (IPEC), pp. 1098 - 1102, 2007.
[10] Arnold, D. P., Das, S., Park, J. W., Zana, I., Lang, J. H., and Allen, M. G., "Micro fabricated High-Speed Axial-Flux Multi watt Permanent- Magnet GeneratorsÔÇöPart II: Design, Fabrication, and Testing," Journal Of Micro Electromechanical Systems, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 1351 - 1363, October 2006.
[11] Paulides, J. J. H., Jewell, G. W., and Howe, D., "An Evaluation of Alternative Stator Lamination Materials for a High - Speed, 1.5 MW, Permanent Magnet Generator," IEEE Trans. On Magnetics, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 2041 - 2043, July 2004.
[12] Jang, S. M., Cho, H. W., and Jeong, Y. H., "Influence on the rectifiers of rotor losses in high - speed permanent magnet synchronous alternator," Journal of Applied Physics, 08R315, American Institute of Physics, 08R315-1 - 08R315-3, 2006.
[13] Kolondzovski, Z., "Determination of critical thermal operations for High - speed permanent magnet electrical machines," The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 720-727, 2008.
[14] Nagorny, A. S., Dravid, N. V., Jansen, R. H., and Kenny, B. H., "Design Aspects of a High Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor / Generator for Flywheel Applications," NASA/TMÔÇö2005-213651 June 2005, International Electric Machines and Drives Conference sponsored by the IEEE Industry Applications Society, IEEE Power Electronics Society, IEEE Power Engineering Society, and IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, San Antonio, Texas, May 15-18, 2005.
[15] Hanselmann, D. C., Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Design, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
[16] Hendershot, J. R. and Miller, T. J. E., Design of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors, Oxford, U.K.: Magna Physics Publishing and Clarendon Press, 1994.
[17] Rucker, J. E., Kirtley, J. L., McCoy, Jr. T. J., "Design and Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Generator For Naval Applications," IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium, pp. 451 - 458, 2005.
[18] Kang, D., Curiac, P., Jung, Y., and Jung, S., "Prospects for magnetization of large PM rotors: conclusions from a development case study," IEEE trans. On Energy Conversion, vol. 18, no. 3, Sept. 2003.
[19] Paulides, J., Jewell, G., and Howe, D., "An evaluation of alternative stator lamination materials for a high speed, 1.5 MW, permanent Magnet Generator," IEEE Trans. On Magnetics, vol. 40, no. 4, July 2004.
[20] Bianchi, N., and Lorenzoni, A., "Permanent magnet generators for wind power industry: an overall comparison with traditional generators," Opportunities and advances in international power generation, conference publication No. 419, 1996.
[21] Rahman, M. A., and Slemon, G. R., "Promising Applications of Neodymium Iron Boron Iron Magnets in Electrical Machines," IEEE Trans. On Magnetics, Vol. No. 5, Sept 1985.
[22] Polinder, H. and Hoeijmakers, M. J., "Eddy - Current Losses in the Segmented Surface Mounted Magnets of a PM Machine," IEE Proceedings, Electrical Power Applications, Vol. 146, No. 3, May 1999.
[23] Aglen, O., and Andersson, A., "Thermal Analysis of a High Speed Generator," Industry Applications Conference, 38th IAS Annual Meeting. Con. vol.1, pp. 547- 554, 12-16 Oct. 2003. Current Version Published: 2004-01-07 IEEE Transactions, 2003.
[24] Pepi, J., and Mongeau, P., " High power density permanent magnet generators," DRS Electric power technologies, Inc., 2004.
[25] Kong X., Wang F., and Sun Y. (2007) ÔÇÿComparison of High Speed PM Generator with PM Doubly Fed Reluctance Generator for Distributed Power Generation System-, 2nd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2007. ICIEA 2007, pp. 1193 - 1197.
[26] I. Boldea and S. A. Nasar, Induction Machine Handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl, 2001.
[27] B. Amin, "Contribution to iron-loss evaluation in electrical machines", European Trans. on Elect. Power Eng., vol. 5, 1995, pp. 325-332.
[28] Z.Q. Zhu, D. Howe, E. Bolte, B. Ackermann, "Instantaneous Magnetic Field distribution in brushless permanent-magnet dc motors, part I: open-circuit field", IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, vol. 29, 1993, pp. 124- 135.
[29] Z.Q. Zhu, D. Howe, "Instantaneous Magnetic Field distribution in brushless permanent-magnet dc motors, part II: armature-reaction field", IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, vol. 29, 1993, pp. 136-142.
[30] Z.Q. Zhu, D. Howe, "Instantaneous Magnetic Field distribution in brushless permanent-magnet dc motors, part III: effect of stator slotting", IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, vol. 29, 1993, pp. 143-151.
[31] Z.Q. Zhu, D. Howe, "Instantaneous Magnetic Field distribution in brushless permanent-magnet dc motors, part IV: magnetic field on load", IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, vol. 29, 1993, pp. 152-158.
[32] J.G. Zhu, S.Y.R. Hui, V.S. Ramsden, "Discrete modelling of magnetic cores including hysteresis, eddy current, and anomalous losses", IEE Proc., Part A, Sc., Measure. and Tech., vol. 140, 1993, pp. 317-322.
[33] I. Boldea, Variable speed electric generators, CRC Press, Florida, 2006.
[34] J.G. Zhu, S.Y.R. Hui, V.S. Ramsden, "A generalized dynamic circuit model of magnetic cores for low- and high-frequency applications - Part I: Theoretical calculation of the equivalent core loss resistance", IEEE Trans. Power Elect., vol. 11, 1996, pp.246-250.
[35] Moré, J.J. and Sorensen D.C. "Computing a Trust Region Step", SIAM Journal on Scientific and Statistical Computing, Vol. 3, 1983, pp 553- 572.
[36] Zhang, Y. "Solving Large-Scale Linear Programs by Interior-Point Methods Under the
[37] MATLAB Environment", Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, Technical Report TR96-01, 1995.
[38] Pepi, J. and Mongeau, P. , High power density permanent magnet generators, DRS Electric power technologies, Inc, 2004.
[39] Conn, A. R., Gould N. I. M., and Toint Ph. L. (1991) ÔÇÿA Globally Convergent Augmented Lagrangian Algorithm for Optimization with General Constraints and Simple Bounds-, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, Volume 28, Number 2, pages 545-572.
[40] Conn, A. R., Gould N. I. M., and Toint Ph. L. (1997) ÔÇÿA Globally Convergent Augmented Lagrangian Barrier Algorithm for Optimization with General Inequality Constraints and Simple Bounds-, Mathematics of Computation, Volume 66, Number 217, pages 261-288.
[41] I. H. Shames, and J. M. Pitarresi, Introduction to Solid Mechanics, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall, 2000.
[42] M. F. Ashby, and D. R. H. Jones, Engineering Materials, Pergamon Press, 1991.
[43] J. L. Kirtley, and E. C. Lovelace, "Drag Loss in Retaining Rings of Permanent Magnet Motors," SatCon Technology Corporation, March, 2003.
[44] H. Polinder and M. J. Hoeijmakers, "Eddy-Current Losses in the Permanent Magnets of a PM Machine," EMD 97, Conference Publication No. 444, 1997.