Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30135
Insights into Smoothies with High Levels of Fibre and Polyphenols: Factors Influencing Chemical, Rheological and Sensory Properties
Abstract:Attempts to add fibre and polyphenols (PPs) into popular beverages present challenges related to the properties of finished products such as smoothies. Consumer acceptability, viscosity and phenolic composition of smoothies containing high levels of fruit fibre (2.5-7.5 g per 300 mL serve) and PPs (250-750 mg per 300 mL serve) were examined. The changes in total extractable PP, vitamin C content, and colour of selected smoothies over a storage stability trial (4°C, 14 days) were compared. A set of acidic aqueous model beverages were prepared to further examine the effect of two different heat treatments on the stability and extractability of PPs. Results show that overall consumer acceptability of high fibre and PP smoothies was low, with average hedonic scores ranging from 3.9 to 6.4 (on a 1-9 scale). Flavour, texture and overall acceptability decreased as fibre and polyphenol contents increased, with fibre content exerting a stronger effect. Higher fibre content resulted in greater viscosity, with an elevated PP content increasing viscosity only slightly. The presence of fibre also aided the stability and extractability of PPs after heating. A reduction of extractable PPs, vitamin C content and colour intensity of smoothies was observed after a 14-day storage period at 4°C. Two heat treatments (75°C for 45 min or 85°C for 1 min) that are normally used for beverage production, did not cause significant reduction of total extracted PPs. It is clear that high levels of added fibre and PPs greatly influence the consumer appeal of smoothies, suggesting the need to develop novel formulation and processing methods if a satisfactory functional beverage is to be developed incorporating these ingredients.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1058761Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3643
 D. Sun-Waterhouse, J. Chen, C. Chuah, R. Wibisono, L. Melton, W. Laing, L. Ferguson, and M. A. Skinner. "Kiwifruit-based polyphenols and related antioxidants for functional foods: Kiwifruit extract-enhanced gluten-free bread," Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 60, S7, pp. 251-264, 2009.
 K. P. Scott, S. H. Duncan, and H. J. Flint. "Dietary fibre and the gut microbiota," Nutr. Bull., vol. 33, pp. 201-211, 2008.
 M. Elia and J. H. Cummings. "Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates," Euro. J Clin. Nutr., vol. 61, Suppl. 1, pp. 40-74, 2007.
 I. C. W. Arts and P. C. H. Hollman. "Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 317S- 325S, 2005.
 L. Bravo. "Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance," Nutr. Rev., vol. 56, no.11, p 317, 1998.
 J. Slavin and H. Green. "Dietary fibre and satiety," Nutr. Bull., vol. 32, S32-S42, 2007.
 M. B. Schulze, S. Liu, E. B. Rimm, J. A. E. Manson, W. C. Willett, and F. B. Hu. "Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 80, pp. 348-356, 2004.
 L. Prosky. "What is fibre? Current controversies," Trends Food Sci. Tech., vol.10, pp. 271-275, 2000.
 C. L. Dikeman, M. R. Murphy, and G. C. Fahey. "Dietary fibers affect viscosity of solutions and simulated human gastric and small intestinal digesta," J. Nutr., vol. 136, pp. 913-919, 2006.
 H. Kunzek, S. Muller, S. Vetter, and R .Godeck. "The significance of physico chemical properties of plant cell wall materials for the development of innovative food products," Euro. Food Res. Tech., vol. 214, pp. 361-376, 2002.
 J. Gelroth and G. S. Ranhotra. "Food uses of fibre", in Handbook of Dietary Fibre, S. S. Cho and M. L. Dreher, Eds. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 2001, pp. 435-449.
 C. Soukoulis, D. Lebesi, and C. Tzia. "Enrichment of ice cream with dietary fibre: Effects on rheological properties, ice crystallisation and glass transition phenomena," Food Chem., vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 665-671, 2009.
 C. L. Dikeman and G. C. Fahey. "Viscosity as related to dietary fiber: A review," Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 649-663, 2006.
 S. M. Dello, N. Bertola, M. Martino, and A. Bevilacqua. "Influence of dietary fiber addition on sensory and rheological properties of yogurt," Int. Dairy J., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 263-268, 2004.
 M. Lyly, M. Salmenkallio-Marttila, T. Suortti, K. Autio, K. Poutanen, and L. L├ñhteenm├ñki. "Influence of oat β-glucan preparations on the perception of mouthfeel and on rheological properties in beverage prototypes," Cereal Chem., vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 536-541, 2003.
 A. Femenia, A.-C. Lefebvre, J.-Y. Thebaudin, J. A. Robertson, and C.- M. Bourgeois. "Physical and sensory properties of model foods supplemented with cauliflower fiber," J. Food Sci., vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 635-639, 1997.
 H. Tuorila. "Sensory perception as a basis for food acceptance and consumption," in Consumer-led Food Product Development, H. MacFie, Ed. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing, 2007, pp. 34-80.
 C. de Graaf. "Sensory influences on food choice and food intake", in Understanding Consumers of Food Products, L. Frewer and H. van Trijp, Eds. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing, 2007, pp. 30-66.
 S. Bhaskaran and F. Hardley. "Buyer beliefs, attitudes and behaviour: Foods with therapeutic claims," J Cons. Marketing vol. 19, pp.591-606, 2002.
 J. Gray, G. Armstrong, and H. Farley. "Opportunities and constrains in the functional food market," Nutr. Food Sci. vol. 33, pp. 213-218, 2003.
 S. R. Jaeger, L. G. Axten, M. W. Wohlers, and D. Sun-Waterhouse. "Polyphenol-rich beverages: insights from sensory and consumer science," J. Sci. Food Agr., vol. 89, no. 14, pp. 2356-2363, 2009.
 L. G. Axten, M. W. Wohlers, and T.Wegrzyn. "Using phytochemicals to enhance health benefits of milk: Impact of polyphenols on flavor profile," J. Food Sci., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. H122-H126, 2008.
 H. Peleg, K. Gacon, P. Schlich, and A. C. Noble. "Bitterness and astringency of flavan-3-ol monomers, dimers and trimers," J. Sci. Food Agr., vol. 79, no. 8, pp.1123-1128, 1999.
 D. Sun-Waterhouse, A. Teoh, C. Massarotto, R. Wibisono, and S. Wadhwa. "Comparative analysis of fruit-based functional snack bars," Food Chem., vol. 119, pp. 1369-1379, 2010.
 T. F. Wegrzyn, J. M. Farr, D. C. Hunter, J. Au, M. W. Wohlers, M. A. Skinner, R. A. Stanley, and D. Sun-Waterhouse. "Stability of antioxidants in an apple polyphenol-milk model system," Food Chem., vol. 109, pp. 310-318, 2008.
 C. M. G. C. Renard. "Effects of conventional boiling on the polyphenols and cell walls of pears," J Sci. Food Agr., vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 310-318, 2005.
 H. Dietrich, A. Rechner, C. Patz, R. Bitsch, V. Bohm, I. Bitsch, and M. Netzel. Influence of processing on the phenolic antioxidants of apple juices. Deut. Lebensm.-Rundsch., vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 1-11, 2003.
 V. Duhard, J. C. Garnier, and D. Megard. "Comparison of the stability of selected anthocyanin colorants in drink model systems," Agro Food Ind. hi-tec., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 28-34. 1997.
 M. Colin-Henrion, E. Mehinagic, C. Renard, P. Richomme, and F. Jourjon. "From apple to applesauce: Processing effects on dietary fibres and cell wall polysaccharides," Food Chem., vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 254- 260, 2009.
 D. Sun-Waterhouse, L. D. Melton, C. J. O-Connor, P. A. Kilmartin, and B. G. Smith. "Effect of apple cell walls and their extracts on the activity of dietary antioxidants," J. Agr. Food Chem., vol 56, pp. 289-295, 2008.
 D. Sun-Waterhouse, B. G. Smith, C. J. O-Connor, and L. D. Melton. "Effect of raw and cooked onion dietary fibre on the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid and quercetin," Food Chem., vol. 111, pp. 580-585, 2008.
 D. Sun-Waterhouse, J. Farr, R. Wibisono, and Z. Saleh. "Fruit-based functional foods I: production of novel food grade apple fibre ingredients," Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., vol. 43, pp. 2113-2122, 2008.
 J. Boyer and R. H. Liu. "Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits," Nutr. J., vol. 3, no. 5, pp.1−15, 2004.
 C. T. da Costa, B. C. Nelson, S. A. Margolis, and D. Horton. "Separation of blackcurrant anthocyanins by capillary zone electrophoresis," J. Chromatogr. A, pp. 321-327, 1998.
 S. Hakkinen, M. Heinonen, S. Karenlampi, H. Mykkanen, J. Ruuskamen, and R. Torronen. "Screening of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids in 19 berries," Food Res. Int. vol. 32, pp. 345-353, 1999.
 K. A. Lyall, S. M. Hurst, J. Cooney, D. Jensen, K. Lo, R. D. Hurst, and L. M. Stevenson. "Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharidestimulated inflammatory responses," Am. J. Physiology-Reg I., vol. 297, no. 1, pp. R70-R81, 2009.
 D. Ghosh, J. Zhang, A. Adaim, S. Parkar, and M. A. Skinner. "Potential health benefits of berries: From antioxidant to anti-neurodegenerative effects", in Proc. 3rd Biennial Meet. Soc.-for-Free-Radical-Res./ 6th Annu. Meet. Soc.-for-Free-Radical-Res.-India, S. Adhikari and T. P. A. Devasagayam, EDs. India So, CL Lonavala, 2007, pp. 57-63.
 H. J. H. MacFie, N. Bratchell, K. Greenhoff, and L. V. Vallis. "Designs to balance the effect of order of presentation and first-order carry-over effects in hall tests," J. Sens. Stud., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 129-148, 1989.
 V. L. Singleton, R. Orthofer, and R. M. Lamuela-Raventos. "Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of the Folin Ciocalteu reagent," Methods Enzymol. vol. 229A, pp. 152- 178, 1997.
 S. George, P. Brat, P. Alter, and M. J. Amiot. "Rapid determination of polyphenols and vitamin C in plant-derived products," J Agr. Food Chem., vol. 53, pp. 1370-1373, 2005.
 AOAC. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th ed., Arlington, VA., 1990, pp. 1058-1059.
 D. Stevenson, R. Wibisono, D. Jensen, R. Stanley, and J. Cooney. "Direct acylation of flavonoid glycosides with phenolic acids catalysed by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435®)," Enzyme Microb. Tech., vol. 39, pp. 1236-1241, 2006.
 J. Neter, M. Kutner, C. Nachtsheim, and W. Wasserman, Applied Linear Statistical Models, 4th ed. Homewood, Ill.: Irwin, 1996.
 C. M. G. C. Renard, A. Baron, S. Guyot, and J.-F. Drilleau. "Interactions between apple cell walls and native apple polyphenols: quantification and some consequences," Int. J Biol. Macromol., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 115- 125, 2001.
 F. W. Wood and T. C. Goff. "The determination of the effective shear rate in the Brabender Viscograph and in other systems of complex geometry," Starch, vol. 25, no. 3, p. 89, 1973.
 H. K. Ju, H. W. Chung, S.-S. Hong, J. H. Park, J. Lee, and S. W. Kwon. "Effect of steam treatment on soluble phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus)," Food Chem., vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 619-625, 2010.
 E. L. Inns, L. A. Buggey, C. Booer, H. E. Nursten, and J. M. Ames. "Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity, color, and free phenolic acid profile of malt," J. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 55, pp. 6539- 6546, 2007.
 J. Yang, R. Paulino, S. Janke-Stedronsky, and F. Abawi. "Free-radicalscavenging activity and total phenols of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice and powder in processing and storage," Food Chem., vol. 102, pp. 302-308, 2007.
 R. D. Hartley, W. H. Morrison, D. S. Himmelsbach, and N. S. Borneman. "Cross-linking of cell wall phenolics to arabinoxylans in graminaceous plants," Phytochemistry vol. 29, pp. 3701-3709, 1990.
 S. M. Jeong, S. Y. Kim, D. R. Kim, S. C. Jo, K. C. Nam, D. U. Ahn, and S. C. Lee. "Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peels," J. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 52, pp. 3389-3393, 2004.
 D. Sun-Waterhouse, I. Wen, R. Wibisono, L. D. Melton, and S. Wadhwa. "Evaluation of the extraction efficiency for polyphenol extracts from by-products of green kiwifruit juicing," Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., vol. 44, pp. 2644-2652, 2009.
 M. Naczk and F. Shahidi. "Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food," J. Chromatogr. A, vol. 1054, pp. 95-111, 2004.
 F. Torregrosa, M. J. Esteve, A. Fr├¡gola, and C. Cortés. "Ascorbic acid stability during refrigerated storage of orange-carrot juice treated by high pulsed electric field and comparison with pasteurized juice," J. Food Eng., vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 339-345, 2006.
 G. L. Robertson and C. M. Samaniego-Esguerra. "Effect of soluble solids and temperature on ascorbic acid degradation in lemon juice stored in glass bottles," J. Food Quality, vol.13, no. 5, pp. 361-374, 1990.
 M. L. Liao and P. A. Seib. "Chemistry of L-ascorbic acid related to foods," Food Chem., vol. 30, pp. 293-312, 1988.
 R. J. Evans and F. Shahidi. "Optimizing lipid stability with natural inhibitors", in Natural Antioxidants: Chemistry, Health Effects and Applications. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press, 1997, pp. 225-244.
 J. J. L. Cilliers and V. L. Singleton. "Nonenzymatic autoxidative phenolic browning reactions in a caffeic acid model system," J. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 37, pp. 890-896, 1989.
 L. W. Kroh. "Caramelisation in food and beverages," Food Chem., vol. 51, pp. 373-379, 1994.
 M. H. Choi, G. H. Kim, and H. S. Lee. "Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color and pigment stability in blood orange (Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage," Food Res. Int., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 753-759, 2002.
 M. D. Siddiq, J. F.Arnold, N. K. Sinha, and J. N. Cash. "Effect of polyphenol oxidase and its inhibitors on anthocyanin changes in plum juice," J Food Process. Pres., vol. 18, pp. 75-84, 1994.
 J. Davidek, J. Velisek, and J. Pokorny. "Sensorially active compounds", in Chemical Changes During Food Processing, New York: Elsevier Pub. Co, 1990, p 311.
 N. P. Seeram, L. D. Bourquin, and M. G. Nair. "Degradation products of cyanidin glycosides from tart cherries and their bioactivities," J. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 49, pp. 4924-4929, 2001.
 A. Piga, A. Del Caro, and G. Corda. "From plums to prunes: Influence of drying parameters on polyphenols and antioxidant activity," J. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 51, pp. 3675-3681, 2003.
 D. L. Luthria. "Significance of sample preparation in developing analytical methodologies for accurate estimation of bioactive compounds in functional foods," J. Sci. Food Agr., vol. 86, pp. 2266-2272, 2006.
 D. Tura and K. Robards. "Sample handling strategies for the determination of biophenols in food and plants," J. Chromatogr. A, vol. 975, pp. 71-93, 2002.
 J. Perez-Jimenez and F. Saura-Calixto. "Effect of solvent and certain food constituents on different antioxidant capacity assays," Food Res. Int., vol. 39, pp. 791-800, 2006.
 H. Rawel, J. Kroll, and U. Hohl. "Model studies on reactions of plant phenols with whey proteins," Nahrung, vol. 45, pp. 72-78, 2001.
 A. Nose. "Solute effects on the interaction between water and ethanol in aged whiskey," J. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 52, pp. 5359-5365, 2004.
 A. Papadopoulou and R. A. Frazier. "Characterization of protein- polyphenol interactions," Trends Food Sci. Tech., vol. 15, pp. 186-190, 2004.
 H. Tuorila and A.V. Cardello. "Consumer responses to an off-flavor in juice in the presence of specific health claims," Food Qual. Prefer., vol. 13, pp. 561-569, 2002.
 A. Krystallis, G. Maglaras, and S. Mamalis. "Motivations and cognitive structures of consumers in their purchasing of functional foods," Food Qual. Prefer., vol. 19, pp. 525-538, 2008.
 A. Drewnowski and C. Gomez-Carneros. "Bitter taste, phytonutrients, and the consumer: a review," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 72, pp. 1424-1435, 2000.