Possible Utilization of Cigarette Butts in Light- Weight Fired Clay Bricks
Over a million tonnes of cigarette butts (CBs) are produced worldwide annually. These CBs accumulate in the environment due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters and pose a serious environmental risk. This paper presents some of the results from a continuing study on recycling CBs into fired clay bricks. Properties including compressive strength, flexural strength, density, water absorption and thermal conductivity of fired clay bricks are reported and discussed. Furthermore, leaching of heavy metals from the manufactured clay bricks was tested. The results show that the density of fired bricks was reduced by about 8 – 30 %, depending on the percentage of CBs incorporated into the raw materials. The compressive strength of bricks tested was 12.57, 5.22 and 3.00 MPa for 2.5, 5.0 and 10 % CB content respectively. Water absorption and initial rate of absorption values increased as density, and hence porosity, of bricks decreased with increasing CB volume. The leaching test results revealed trace amounts of heavy metals.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1328080Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4170
 U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA). (2004, September 31). Production, Supply and Distribution, (Online). Avalaible: http://www. fas.usda.gov/psdonline/.
 Mackay, J., Eriksen, M. and Shafey, O., "The Tobacco Atlas 2nd Edition, American Cancer Society", 2000, pp. 32-33.
 Micevskia, T., Warne, M. St. J., Pablo, F. and Patra, R., "Variation in, and causes of toxicity of cigarette butts to a cladoceran and microtox", Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. vol. 50, pp. 205-212, 2006.
 Butt Littering Trust. (2007, April, 10). About Butt Litter (Online). Available: http://www.buttlitteringtrust.org.
 Hoffmann, D. and Hoffmann, I., "The changing cigarette", Journal Toxic Environ Health, vol. 15, pp. 307-364, 1997.
 Hoffmann, D., Hoffmann, I. and El-Bayoumy, K., "The less harmful cigarette: A controversial issue", A tribute to Ernst L. Wynder, Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 767-790, 2001.
 Register, K., "Cigarette butts as litter-toxic as well as ugly?", Bull. Am. Litt. Soc. vol. 254, pp. 23-29, 2000.
 Yuan, Y., Lu, Z. X., Huang, L. J., Bie, X. M., Lu, F. X., and Li, Y., "Optimization of a medium for enhancing nicotine biodegradation by Ochrobactrum intermedium DN2", Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 101, pp. 691-697, 2006.
 Ruan, A., Min, H., Peng, X. and Huang, Z., "Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas sp. strain HF-1, capable of degrading nicotine", Research in Microbiology, vol.156, pp.700-706, 2005.
 Hackendahl, N., Sereda, C. W. and Volmer, P. A., "The dangers of nicotine ingestion in dogs". Veterinary Science, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 218- 224, 2004.
 Salomon, M. E., Nicotine and tobacco preparations. Goldank-s Toxicologic Emergencies, 6th Ed. (L.R. Goldfrank et al.ds.), Appleton and Lange, Stanford, Conn, 1998, pp. 1145-157.
 Knox, A., "An overview of incineration and EFW technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW)", ONEIA Energy Subcommitte. 2005.
 Turgut, P. and Yesilata, B., "Physico-mechanical and thermal performances of newly developed rubber-added bricks", Energy and Buildings, vol. 40, pp. 679-688, 2008.
 Turgut, P. and Algin, H. M., "Limestone dust and wood sawdust as brick material", Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 3399-3403, 2006.
 Demir, I., "An investigation on the production of construction brick with processed waste tea", Building and Environment, vol. 41, pp. 1274- 1278, 2005.
 Kayali, O., "High performance bricks from fly ash", Proceedings of the World of Coal Ash Conference, Lexinton, Kentucky, 2005.
 Lin, K. L., "Feasibility study of using brick made from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash slag". Journal of Hazardous Materials vol.137, pp.1810-1816, 2006.
 Veiseh, S. and Yousefi, A. A., "The use of polystyrene in lightweight brick production", Iranian Polymer Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 324-329, 2003.
 Basegio, T., Berutti, F., Bernades, A. and Bergmann, C. P., "Environmental and technical aspects of the utilization of tannery sludge as a raw material for clay products", Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol.22, pp.2251-2259, 2002.
 Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 1141.11:1996, Method 11, 1996.
 Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 1218.104.22.168:2003, Method 5.1.1, 2003.
 Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4456.1:2003, Method 1, 2003.
 Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4439.3:1997, Method 3, 1997.
 Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 3700, 2001.
 USEPA, Hazardous Waste Characteristics Scoping Study, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste, 1996.
 EPAV, Guidelines for Hazard Classification of Solid Prescribed Industrial Waste, Publication 996, June 2005.
 Jackson, N., Dhir, R. K.,"Civil Engineering Materials, 5th Edition", Macmillan Press, London, 1997, pp. 496-497.