Heat-treated or Raw Sunflower Seeds in Lactating Dairy Cows Diets: Effects on Milk Fatty Acids Profile and Milk Production
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with raw or heat-treated sunflower oil seed with two levels of 7.5% or 15% on unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat and performances of high-yielding lactating cows. Twenty early lactating Holstein cows were used in a complete randomized design. Treatments included: 1) CON, control (without sunflower oil seed). 2) LS-UT, 7.5% raw sunflower oil seed. 3) LS-HT, 7.5% heat-treated sunflower oil seed. 4) HS-UT, 15% raw sunflower oil seed. 5) HS-HT, 15% heat-treated sunflower oil seed. Experimental period lasted for 4 wk, with first 2 wk used for adaptation to the diets. Supplementation with 7.5% raw sunflower seed (LS-UT) tended to decrease milk yield, with 28.37 kg/d compared with the control (34.75 kg/d). Milk fat percentage was increased with the HS-UT treatment that obtained 3.71% compared with CON that was 3.39% and without significant different. Milk protein percent was decreased high level sunflower oil seed treatments (15%) with 3.18% whereas CON treatment is caused 3.40% protein. The cows fed added low sunflower heat-treated (LS-HT) produced milk with the highest content of total unsaturated fatty acid with 32.59 g/100g of milk fat compared with the HS-UT with 23.59 g/100g of milk fat. Content of C18 unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat increased from 21.68 g/100g of fat in the HS-UT to 22.50, 23.98, 27.39 and 30.30 g/100g of fat from the cow fed HS-HT, CON, LS-UT and LS-HT treatments, respectively. C18:2 isomers of fatty acid in milk were greater by LSHT supplementation with significant effect (P < 0.05). Total of C18 unsaturated fatty acids content was significantly higher in milk of animal fed added low heat-treated sunflower (7.5%) than those fed with high sunflower. In all, results of this study showed that diet cow's supplementation with sunflower oil seed tended to reduce milk production of lactating cows but can improve C18 UFA (Unsaturated Fatty Acid) content in milk fat. 7.5% level of sunflower oil seed that heated seemed to be the optimal source to increase UFA production.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1084550Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1565
 Chilliard , Y., C. Martin., J. Rouel., and M. Doreau. 2009. Milk fatty acids in dairy cows fed whole crude linseed, extruded linseed, or linseed oil, and their relationship with methane output. J. Dairy Sci. 92 :5199-5211.
 Parodi, P. W. 2002. Conjugated linoleic acid. Pages 1587-1594 in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences.
 Lee, K. N., D. Kritchevsky, and M. W. Pariza. 1994. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 108:19-25.
 Pariza, M. W., Y. Park, M. Cook, K. Albright, and W. Liu. 1996. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat. FASEB J. 10:3227. (Abstr.)
 Johnson, K. A., R. L. Kincaid, H. H. Westberg, C. T. Gaskins, B. K. Lamb, and J. D. Cronrath. 2002. The effect of oilseeds in diets of lactating cows on milk production and methane emissions. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1509-1515.
 Bauman, D. E., B. A. Corl, L. H. Baumgard, and J. M. Griinari. 2001. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the dairy cow. Pages: 221-250 in recent advances in animal nutrition. P. G. Gransworthly and J. Wiseman, ed. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
 Piperova, L. S., J. Sampugna, B. B. Teter, K. F. Kalscheur, M. P. Yurawecz, Y. Ku, K. M. Morehouse, and R. A. Erdman. 2002. Duodenal and milk trans octadecenoic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers indicate that postabsorptive synthesis is the predominant source of cis-9-containing CLA in lactating dairy cows. J. Nutr. 132:1235-1241.
 Kay, J. K., T. R. Mackle, M. J. Auldist, N. A. Thomson, and D. E. Bauman. 2004. Endogenous synthesis of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in dairy cows fed fresh pasture. J. Dairy Sci. 87:369-378.
 Mcguffey, R. K, and D. J. Schingoethe. 1982. Whole Sunflower Seeds for High Producing Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 65:1479--1483
 Kelly, L. M., and D. E. Bauman. 1996. Conjugated linoleic acid: A potent anticarcinogen found in milk fat. Pages 68-74 in Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf., Syracuse, NY. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.
 Zheng, H. C., J. X. Liu., J. H. Yao., Q. Yuan., H. W. Ye., J. A. Ye, and Y. M. Wu. 2005. Effects of dietary sources of vegetable oils on performance of high-yielding lactating cows and conjugated linoleic acids in milk. J. Dairy Sci. 88: 2037-2042.
 Luna, P., A. Bach, M. Jua' rez, and M. A. de la Fuente. 2008. Effect of a diet enriched in whole linseed and sunflower oil on goat milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid isomer profile. J. Dairy Sci. 91:20-28.
 Palmquist, D. L., A. L. Lock, K. J. Shingfield, and D. E. Bauman. 2005. Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid in ruminants and humans. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 50:179-217.
 Dhiman, T. R., L. D. Satter, M. W. Pariza, M. P. Galli, K. Albright, and M. X. Tolosa. 2000. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk from cows offered diets rich in linoleic and linolenic acid. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1016-1027.
 Garnsworthy, P. C. 1997. Fats in dairy cow diets. Pages 87-104 in Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. P. C. Garnsworthy and J. Wiseman, ed. Nottingham Univ. Press, Nottingham, UK.
 Jenkins, T. C. 1998. Fatty acid composition of milk from Holstein cows fed oleamide or canola oil. J. Dairy Sci. 81:794-800.
 Bu, D. P., J. Q. Wang, T. R. Dhiman, and S. J. Liu. 2007. Effectiveness of oils rich in linoleic and linolenic acids to enhance conjugated linoleic acid in milk from dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:998-1007.
 Hu, F. B., and W. C. Willett. 2002. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 288: 2569-2578.
 Beauchemin, K. A., S. M. McGinn, C. Benchaar, and L. Holtshausen. 2009. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production. J Dairy Sci 92: 2118-2127.
 Schingoethe, D. J., M. J. Brouk, K. D. Lightfield, and R. J. Baer. 1996. Lactational responses of dairy cows fed unsaturated fat from extruded soybeans or sunflower seeds. J. Dairy Sci. 79:1244-1249.
 NRC. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.
 Edmonson, A. J., I. Lean, L. D. Weaver, T. Farver and G. Webster. 1989. A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:68-78.
 AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., Arlington, VA.
 Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3583-3597.
 Park, P. W., and R. E. Goins. 1994. In situ preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for analysis of fatty acid composition in foods. J. Food Sci. 59:1262-1266.
 SAS Institute. 2002. SAS/STAT User-s Guide: Statistics. Version 9.1., SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
 Petit, H. V. 2003. Digestion, milk production, milk composition, and blood composition of dairy cows fed formaldehyde treated flaxseed or sunflower seed. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2637-2646.
 Rafalowski, W., and C. S. Park. 1982. Whole sunflower seed as a fat supplement for lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 65:1484-1492.
 Schauff, D. J., and J. H. Clark. 1992. Effects of feeding diets containing calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2990-3002.
 Duske, K., H. M. Hammon, A.-K. Langhof, O. Bellmann, B. Losand, K. N├╝rnberg, G. N├╝rnberg, H. Sauerwein, H. M. Seyfert, and C. C. Metges. 2009. Metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows fed a diet containing rumen-protected fat during the last twelve weeks of gestation. J. Dairy Sci. 92: 1670-1684.
 Kempton, T. J., J. V. Nolan, and R. A. Leng. 1979. Protein nutrition of growing lambs. 2. Effect of nitrogen digestion of supplementing a low-protein-cellulosic diet with either urea, casein, or formaldehydetreated casein. Br. J. Nutr. 42:303-315.
 Flowers, G., S. A. Ibrahim, and A. A. AbuGhazaleh. 2008. Milk fatty acid composition of grazing dairy cows when supplemented with linseed oil. J. Dairy Sci. 91:722-730.
 Rego, O. A., H. J. D. Rosa, P. Portugal, T. Franco, C. M. Vouzela, A. E. S. Borba, and R. J. B. Bessa. 2005b. The effects of supplementation with sunflower and soybean oils on the fatty acid profile of milk fat from grazing dairy cows. Anim. Res. 54:17-24.
 Tymchuk, S. M., G. R. Khorasani, and J. J. Kennelly. 1998. Effect of feeding formaldehyde- and heat-treated oil seed on milk yield and milk composition. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 78: 693-700.
 Ashes, J. R., P. S. Vincent Welch, S. K. Gulati, T. W. Scott, and G. H. Brown. 1992. Manipulation of the fatty acid composition of milk by feeding protected canola seeds. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1090-1096.
 AbuGhazaleh, A. A., and L. D. Holmes. 2007. Diet Supplementation with fish oil and sunflower oil to increase conjugated linoleic acid levels in milk fat of partially grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:2897-2904.
 Casper, D. P., D. J. Schingoethe., R. P. Middaugh, and R. J. Baer. 1988. Lactational responses of dairy cows to diets containing regular and high oleic acid sunflower seeds. J. Dairy Sci. 71: 1267-1274.
 Stegeman, G. A., d. P. Casper, d. J. Schingoethe, and R. J. Baer. 1992. Lactational responses of dairy cows fed unsaturated dietary fat and receiving bovine omatotropin. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1936-1945.
 Kim, J. K., D. J. Schingoethe, D. P. Casper, and F. C. Ludens. 1993. Supplemental dietary fat from extruded soybeans and calcium soaps of fatty acids for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:197-204.
 Chilliard, Y., F. Glasser, A. Ferlay, L. Bernard, J. Rouel, and M. Doreau. 2007. Diet, rumen biohydrogenation and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109:828-855.
 Glasser, F., A. Ferlay, and Y. Chilliard. 2008. Oilseed lipid supplements and fatty acid composition of cow milk: A Meta- Analysis. J Dairy Sci 91: 4687-4703.
 Palmquist, D. L., A. D. Beaulieu, and D. M. Barbano. 1993. Feed and animal factors influencing milk fat composition. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1753-1771.
 Moate, P. J., W. Chalupa, R. C. Boston, and I. J. Lean. 2007. Milk fatty acids I: Variation in the concentration of individual fatty acids in bovine milk. J. Dairy Sci. 90:4730-4739.
 Grummer, R. R. 1991. Effects of feed on the composition of milk fat. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3244-3257.
 Loor, J. J., K. Ueda, A. Ferlay, Y. Chilliard, and M. Doreau. 2004. Short Communication: Diurnal profiles of conjugated linoleic acids and trans fatty acids in ruminal fluid from cows fed a high concentrate diet supplemented with fish oil, linseed oil, or sunflower oil. J. Dairy Sci. 87:2468-2471.
 Chouinard, P. Y., V. Girard, and G. J. Brisson. 1998. Fatty acid profile and physical properties of milk fat from cows fed calcium salts of fatty acids with various unsaturation. J. Dairy Sci. 81:471-481.
 Petit, H. V., R. J. Dewhurst, N. D. Scollan, J. G. Proulx, M. Khalid, W. Haresign, H. Twagiramungu, and G. E. Mann. 2002. Milk production and composition, ovarian function, and prostaglandin secretion of dairy cows fed omega-3 fats. J. Dairy Sci. 85:889-899.
 Ward, A. T., K. M. Wittenberg, and R. Przybylski. 2002. Bovine milk fatty acid profiles produced by feeding diets containing solin, flax, and canola. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1191-1196.
 Brzoska, F. 2005. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on milk yield, composition and CLA isomer profile in milk from dairy cows. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 14:445-459.
 Atwal, A. S., Hidiroglou, M, and J. K. G. Kramer. 1991. Effects of feeding protect7 and alpha-tocopherol on fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of cow's milk. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 140-145.
 Khorasani, G. R. and J. J. Kennely. 1998. Effect of added dietary fat on performance, rumen characteristics and plasma hormone and metabolites in midlactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81: 2459-2468.
 Palmquist, D. J. and T. C. Jenkins. 1980. Fat in lactation rations: Review. J. Dairy Sci. 63: 1-13.
 Bobe, G., G. L. Lindberg, L. F. Reutzel, and M. D. Hanigan. 2009. Effects of lipid supplementation on the yield and composition of milk from cows with different β-lactoglobulin phenotypes. J Dairy Sci 92: 197-203.