Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31108
Torrefaction of Malaysian Palm Kernel Shell into Value-Added Solid Fuels
Abstract:This project aims to investigate the potential of torrefaction to improve the properties of Malaysian palm kernel shell (PKS) as a solid fuel. A study towards torrefaction of PKS was performed under various temperature and residence time of 240, 260, and 280oC and 30, 60, and 90 minutes respectively. The torrefied PKS was characterized in terms of the mass yield, energy yield, elemental composition analysis, calorific value analysis, moisture and volatile matter contents, and ash and fixed carbon contents. The mass and energy yield changes in the torrefied PKS were observed to prove that the temperature has more effect compare to residence time in the torrefaction process. The C content of PKS increases while H and O contents decrease after torrefaction, which resulted in higher heating value between 5 to 16%. Meanwhile, torrefaction caused the ash and fixed carbon content of PKS to increase, and the moisture and volatile matter to decrease.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1083713Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3244
 L. Nunez, J. A. Rodriguez, J.Proupin, A. Vilanova, and N. Montero, "Determination of calorific values of forest waste biomass by static bomb calorimetry," Thermochimica Acta 371, pp. 23-31, 2001.
 C-S. Chou, S-H. Lin, C-C.Peng, and W-C. Lu, "The optimum conditions for preparing solid fuel briquette of rice straw by a pistonmold process using the Taguchi method," Fuel Processing Technology 90, pp. 1041-1046, 2009.
 S. Mekhilef, R. Saidur, A. Safari, and W.E.S.B. Mustaffa, "Biomass energy in Malaysia: Current state and prospects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, pp. 3360- 3370, 2011.
 P. McKendry, "Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass," Bioresource Technology 83, pp. 37-46, 2002.
 M.N. Nimlos, E. Brooking. M.J. Looker, and R.J. Evans, "Biomass torrefaction studied with a molecular beam mass spectrometer," Div. Fuel Chem. 590, 2003.
 P.C.A. Bergman, A.R. Boersma, R.W.R. Zwart, and J.H.A. Kiel, "Torrefaction for biomass co-firing in existing coal-fired power stations," Energy Research Center of Netherand (ECN), 2005
 T.G. Bridgeman, J.M. Jones, I. Shield, and P.T. Williams, "Torrefaction of reed canary grass, wheat straw and willow to enhance solid fuel qualities and combustion properties," Fuel 87, pp. 844-856, 2008.
 A. Pimchuai, A. Dutta, and P. Basu, "Torrefaction of Agriculture Residue to Enhance Combustible Properties," energy & fuels article, 2010.
 A.V. Bridgwater, "Renewable fuels and chemicals by thermal processing of biomass," Chemical Engineering Journal 91, pp. 87-102, 2003.
 P.C.A. Bergman and J.H.A. Kiel, "Torrefaction for biomass upgrading," 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, 2005.
 T.M.I. Mahlia, M.Z. Abdulmuin, T.M.I. Alamsyah, and D. Mukhlishien, "An alternative energy source from palm wastes industry for Malaysia and Indonesia," Energy Conversion and Management 42, pp. 2109- 2118, 2001.
 M.B. Wahid, "Renewable Resources from Oil Palm for Production of Biofuel," International Conference on Biofuels, pp. 163-169, 2007.
 S. Yusup, M.T. Arpin, Y. Uemura, A. Ramli, and L. Ismail, "Review on agricultural biomass utilization as energy source in Malaysia," Proceedings for 16th ASEAN Regional Symposium on Chemical Engineering, (RSCE-09), Manila, pp. 86-89, 2009.
 P. Gevers, G.Ramaekers, A.Frehen, M.Sijbinga, E. van Steen, J.Sturms, and I.B.Taks, "Green energy, from wood or torrefied wood," University of Technology Eindhoven, 2002.
 Y. Uemura, W. Omar, T. Tsutsui, D. Subbarao, and S. Yusup, "Relationship between Calorific Value and Elementary Composition of Torrefied Lignocellulosic Biomass," Journal of Applied Science 10, pp. 3250-3256, 2010.
 H. Yang, R. Yan, H. Chen, D.H. Lee, D.T. Liang, and C. Zheng, "Mechanism of Palm Oil Waste Pyrolysis in a Packed Bed," Energy and Fuels 20, pp. 1321-1328, 2006.
 M.J. Prins, K.J. Ptasinski, and F.J.J.G. Janssen, "Torrefaction of wood Part 2. Analysis of products," J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 77, pp. 35-40, 2006.