@article{(International Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/14838,
	  title     = {Torrefaction of Malaysian Palm Kernel Shell into Value-Added Solid Fuels},
	  author    = {Amin A. Jaafar and  Murni M. Ahmad},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {This project aims to investigate the potential of
torrefaction to improve the properties of Malaysian palm kernel shell
(PKS) as a solid fuel. A study towards torrefaction of PKS was
performed under various temperature and residence time of 240, 260,
and 280oC and 30, 60, and 90 minutes respectively. The torrefied
PKS was characterized in terms of the mass yield, energy yield,
elemental composition analysis, calorific value analysis, moisture and
volatile matter contents, and ash and fixed carbon contents. The mass
and energy yield changes in the torrefied PKS were observed to
prove that the temperature has more effect compare to residence time
in the torrefaction process. The C content of PKS increases while H
and O contents decrease after torrefaction, which resulted in higher
heating value between 5 to 16%. Meanwhile, torrefaction caused the
ash and fixed carbon content of PKS to increase, and the moisture
and volatile matter to decrease.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Chemical and Molecular Engineering},
	  volume    = {5},
	  number    = {12},
	  year      = {2011},
	  pages     = {1106 - 1109},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/14838},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/60},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {International Science Index 60, 2011},
	}