Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31097
Effect of Muscle Loss on Hip Muscular Effort during the Swing Phase of Transfemoral Amputee Gait: A Simulation Study

Authors: Dabiri Y, Najarian S, Eslami M R., Zahedi S, Moser D, Shirzad E, Allami M


The effect of muscle loss due to transfemoral amputation, on energy expenditure of hip joint and individual residual muscles was simulated. During swing phase of gait, with each muscle as an ideal force generator, the lower extremity was modeled as a two-degree of freedom linkage, for which hip and knee were joints. According to results, muscle loss will not lead to higher energy expenditure of hip joint, as long as other parameters of limb remain unaffected. This finding maybe due to the role of biarticular muscles in hip and knee joints motion. Moreover, if hip flexors are removed from the residual limb, residual flexors, and if hip extensors are removed, residual extensors will do more work. In line with the common practice in transfemoral amputation, this result demonstrates during transfemoral amputation, it is important to maintain the length of residual limb as much as possible.

Keywords: Simulation, transfemoral amputee, Amputation Level

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1494


[1] M. W. Whittle, Gait analysis: an introduction, Butterwort-Heinmann, 2002, pp. 1- 41.
[2] J. Perry, Gait Analysis, SLACK, 1992, pp. 40- 47.
[3] S. J. Piazza, S. L. Delp, "The influence of muscles on knee flexion during the swing phase of gait," J. Biomech., vol. 29, pp. 723-733, Jun. 1996.
[4] C. Jonkers, Stewart, A. Spaepen, "The study of muscle action during single support and swing phase of gait: clinical relevance of forward simulation techniques," Gait Posture, vol. 17, pp. 97-105, Apr. 2003.
[5] D. Arnold, M. Thelen, F. Schwartz, Anderson, S. Delp, "Muscular coordination of knee motion during the terminal-swing phase of normal gait," J. Biomech., vol. 40, pp. 3314-3324, Jun. 2007.
[6] Th. F. Besier, M. Fredericson, G. E. Gold, G. S. Beaupre', S. Delp, "Knee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain-free controls," J. Biomech., vol. 42, pp. 898- 905, Mar. 2009.
[7] F. Gottschalk, "Transfemoral amputation: surgical management," in Atlas of amputations and limb deficiencies, surgical, prosthetic, and rehabilitation principles, 3nd ed., D. G. Smith, J. W. Michael, J. H. Bowker, Ed. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2004, pp. 533- 540.
[8] G. H. Traugh, P. J. Corcoran, R. L. Reyes, "Energy expenditure of ambulation in patients with transfemoral amputation," Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., vol. 56, pp. 67- 71, Feb. 1975.
[9] R. Waters, J. Perry, D. Antonelli, and H. Hislop, "Energy cost of walking amputees: the influence of level of amputation," J. Bone Joint Surg., vol. 58, pp. 42-46, Jan. 1976.
[10] C. T. Huang, J. R. Jackson, N. B. Moore, P. R. Fine, K. V. Kuhlemeier, G. H. Traugh, P.T. Saunders, "Amputation: energy cost of ambulation," Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., vol. 60, pp. 18- 24, Jan. 1979.
[11] M. S. Pinzur, J. Gold, D. Schwartz, N. Gross, "Energy demands for walking in dysvascular amputees as related to the level of amputation," Orthopedics, vol. 15, pp. 1033- 1036, Sep. 1992.
[12] A. M. Boonstra, J. Schrama, V. Fidler, W. H. Eisma, "The gait of unilateral transfemoral amputees," Scand. J. Rehabil. Med., vol. 26, pp. 217- 223, Dec. 1994.
[13] D. Hunter, E. Smith Cole, J. M. Murray, T. D. Murray, "Energy expenditure of below- knee amputees during harness- supported treadmill ambulation," J. Orthop. sports Phys. Ther., vol. 21, pp. 268- 276, May 1995.
[14] J. J. Genin, G. J. Bastien, B. Franck, C. Detrembleur, P. A. Willems, "Effect of speed on the energy cost of walking in unilateral traumatic lower limb amputees," Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 103, pp. 655- 663, May 2008.
[15] S. M. Jaegers, J. H. Arendzen, H. J. de Jongh, "An electromyographic study of the hip muscles of transfemoral amputees in walking," Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 328, pp. 119- 128, Jul. 1996.
[16] R. Dumas, L. Cheze, L. Frossard, "Loading applied on prosthetic knee of transfemoral amputee: Comparison of inverse dynamics and direct measurements," Gait Posture, vol. 30, pp. 560-562, Aug. 2009.
[17] S. A. Hale, "Analysis of the swing phase dynamics and muscular effort of the transfemoral amputee for varying prosthetic shank loads," Prosthet. Orthot. Int., vol. 14, pp. 125 -135, Dec. 1990.
[18] L. L. McNealy, S. A. Gard, "Effect of prosthetic ankle units on the gait of persons with bilateral trans-femoral amputations," Prosthetics and Orthotics International, vol. 32, pp. 111-126, Mar. 2008.
[19] J. W├╝hr, U. Veltmann, L. Linkemeyer, B. Drerup, H. Wetz, "Influence of modern above-knee prostheses on the biomechanics of gait," Advances in Medical Engineering, vo. 114, pp. 267-72, 2007.
[20] A. D. Segal, M. S. Orendurff, G. K. Klute, M. L. McDowell, J. A. Pecoraro, J. Shofer, et al, "Kinematic and kinetic comparisons of transfemoral amputee gait using C-Leg® and Mauch SNS® prosthetic knees," J. Rehabil. R. D., vol. 43, pp. 857-870, Dec. 2006.
[21] M. L. Van der Linden, S. E. Solomonidis, W. D. Spence, N. Li, J. P. Paul, "A methodology for studying the effects of various types of prosthetic feet on the biomechanics of trans-femoral amputee gait," J. Biomech., vol. 32, pp. 877-89, Sep. 1999.
[22] S. Blumentritt, H. Scherer, J. Michael, T. Schmalz, "Transfemoral amputees walking on a rotary hydraulic prosthetic knee mechanism: A preliminary Report," J. Prosthet. Orthot., vol. 10, pp. 61-70, Summer 1998.
[23] Y. Dabiri, S. Najarian, S. Zahedi, D. Moser, E. Shirzad, "Muscle Contributions in the Swing Phase of Transfemoral Amputee Gait: An Inverse Dynamics Approach," Research Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 1076- 1084, 2009.
[24] S. L. Delp, Surgery simulation: a computer graphics system to analyze and design musculoskeletal reconstructions of the lower limb, Dissertation, Stanford University, 1990, pp. 89- 106.
[25] L. Fang, X. Jia, R. Wang, "Modeling and simulation of muscle forces of trans-tibial amputee to study effect of prosthetic alignment," Clin. Biomech., vol. 22, pp. 1125-1131, Dec. 2007.
[26] F. C. Anderson and M. G. Pandy, "Static and dynamic optimization solutions for gait are practically equivalent", J. Biomech., vol. 34, pp. 153 -161, Feb. 2001.
[27] D. A. Winter, Biomechanics of Motor Control and Human Gait, Universitv of Waterloo Press, 1991.
[28] R. E. Seroussi., A. Gitter, J. M. Czerniecki, K. Weaver, "Mechanical work adaptations of above-knee amputee ambulation," Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., vol. 77, pp. 1209- 1214, Nov. 1996.
[29] R. L. Waters, S. J. Mulroy, "Energy expenditure of walking in individuals with lower limb amputations," in Atlas of amputations and limb deficiencies, surgical, prosthetic, and rehabilitation principles, 3nd ed., D. G. Smith, J. W. Michael, J. H. Bowker, Ed. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2004, pp. 395- 407.