Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31100
Group Key Management Protocols: A Novel Taxonomy

Authors: Yacine Challal, Hamida Seba


Group key management is an important functional building block for any secure multicast architecture. Thereby, it has been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we present relevant group key management protocols. Then, we compare them against some pertinent performance criteria.

Keywords: Security, multicast, Group Key Management

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1496


[1] K. Almeroth and M. Ammar. Collecting and modelling the join/leave behaviour of multicast group members in the Mbone. Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing, 1996.
[2] D. Balenson, D. McGrew, and A. Sherman. Key Management for Large Dynamic Groups : One-Way Function Trees and Amortized Initialization. draft-balenson-groupkeymgmtoft- 00.txt, February 1999. Internet-Draft.
[3] A. Ballardie. Scalable Multicast Key Distribution, May 1996. RFC 1949.
[4] A. Ballardie. Core Based Trees (CBT version 2) Multicast Routing protocol specification, September 1997. RFC 2189.
[5] T. Ballardie, I.P. Francis, and J. Crowcroft. Core Based Trees: an Architecture for Scalable Inter-domain Multicast Routing. ACM SIGCOMM, pages 85-95, 1993.
[6] C. Becker and U. Wille. Communication complexity of group key distribution. 5th ACM Conference on Computerand Communications Security, Nowember 1998.
[7] C. Boyd. On key agreement and conference key agreement. Information Security and Privacy: Australasian Conference, LNCS(1270):294-302, 1997.
[8] B. Briscoe. MARKS: Multicast key management using arbitrarily revealed key sequences. 1st International Workshop on Networked Group Communication, November 1999.
[9] M. Burmester and Y. Desmedt. A secure and efficient conference key distribution system. EUROCRYP-94, LNCS(950):275-286, 1994.
[10] R. Canetti, J. Garay, G. Itkis, D. Micciancio, M. Naor, and B. Pinkas. Multicast Security: A taxonomy and Efficient Constructions. IEEE INFOCOM, pages 708-716, March 1999.
[11] G. Chaddoud, I. Chrisment, and A. Shaff. Dynamic Group Communication Security. 6th IEEE Symposium on computers and communication, 2001.
[12] Y. Challal, H. Bettahar, and A. Bouabdallah. SAKM: A Scalable and Adaptive Key Management Approach for Multicast Communications. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review, 34(2):55-70, April 2004.
[13] G. H. Chiou and W. T. Chen. Secure Broadcast using Secure Lock. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 15(8):929- 934, August 1989.
[14] H.H. Chu, L. Qiao, and K. Nahrstedt. A Secure Multicast Protocol with Copyright Protection. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review, 32(2):42:60, April 2002.
[15] B. DeCleene, L. Dondeti, S. Griffin, T. Hardjono, D. Kiwior, J. Kurose, D. Towsley, S. Vasudevan, and C. Zhang. Secure group communications for wireless networks. MILCOM, June 2001.
[16] W. Diffie and M.E. Hellman. New directions in cryptography. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-22:644-654, November 1976.
[17] L. Dondeti, S. Mukherjee, and A. Samal. A distributed group key management scheme for secure many-to-many communication. Technical Report PINTL-TR-207-99, 1999.
[18] L. R. Dondeti, S. Mukherjee, and A. Samal. Scalable secure oneto- many group communication using dual encryption. Computer Communications, 23(17):1681-1701, November 2000.
[19] L.R. Dondeti, S. Mukherjee, and A. Samal. Comparison of Hierarchical Key Distribution Schemes. IEEE Globcom Global Internet Symposium, 1999.
[20] L.R. Dondeti, S. Mukherjee, and A. Samal. Survey and Comparison of Secure Group Communication Protocols, 1999. Technical Report.
[21] T. Dunigan and C. Cao. Group Key Management. Technical Report ORNL/TM-13470, 1998.
[22] A. Fiat and M. Naor. Broadcast Encryption. CRYPTO-93, LNCS(773):480-491, 1993.
[23] L. Gong and N. Shacham. Trade-offs in Routing Private Multicast Traffic. GLOBECOM-95, November 1995.
[24] T. Hardjono, B. Cain, and I. Monga. Intra-domain Group Key Management for Multicast Security. IETF Internet draft, September 2000.
[25] H. Harney and C. Muckenhirn. Group Key Management Protocol (GKMP) Architecture, July 1997. RFC 2093.
[26] H. Harney and C. Muckenhirn. Group Key Management Protocol (GKMP) Specification, July 1997. RFC 2094.
[27] I. Ingemarson, D. Tang, and C. Wong. A Conference Key Distribution System. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 28(5):714-720, September 1982.
[28] Y. Kim, A. Perrig, and G. Tsudik. Simple and fault-tolerant Key Agreement for Dynamic Collaborative groups. 7th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 235-244, November 2000.
[29] Y. Kim, A. Perrig, and G. Tsudik. Communication-Efficient group Key Agreement. IFIP SEC, June 2001.
[30] D.A. McGrew and A.T. Sherman. Key Establishement in Large Dynamic Groups using One-way Function Trees. Technical Report TR-0755, May 1998.
[31] S. Mittra. Iolus : A Framework for Scalable Secure Multicasting. ACM SIGCOMM, 1997.
[32] R. Molva and A. Pannetrat. Scalable Multicast Security in dynamic groups. 6th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security, November 1999.
[33] R. Mukherjee and J.W. Atwood. Proxy Encryptions for Secure Multicast Key Management. IEEE Local Computer Networks - LCN-03, October 2003.
[34] R. Mukherjee and J.W. Atwood. SIM-KM: Scalable Infrastructure for Multicast Key Management. IEEE Local Computer Networks - LCN-04, pages 335-342, November 2004.
[35] R. Oppliger and A. Albanese. Distributed registration and key distribution (DiRK). Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Security IFIP SEC-96, 1996.
[36] A. Perrig. Efficient Collaborative key Management protocols for Secure Autonomous Group Communication. International Workshop on Cryptographic techniques and E-commerce, 1999.
[37] A. Perrig, D. Song, and J.D. Tygar. ELK, a new protocol for Efficient Large-group Key distribution. IEEE Security and Priavcy Symposium, May 2001.
[38] R. Poovendram, S. Ahmed, S. Corson, and J. Baras. A Scalable Extension of Group Key Management Protocol. 2nd Annual ATRIP Conference, pages 187-191, February 1998.
[39] S. Rafaeli and D. Hutchison. Hydra: a decentralized group key management. 11th IEEE International WETICE: Enterprise Security Workshop, June 2002.
[40] R. Rivest. The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm, April 1992. RFC 1321.
[41] O. Rodeh, K. Birman, and D. Dolev. Optimized group rekey for group communication systems. Network and Distributed System Security, February 2000.
[42] S. Setia, S. Koussih, S. Jajodia, and E. Harder. Kronos: A scalable group re-keying approach for secure multicast. IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, May 2000.
[43] C. Shields and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. The Ordered Core Based Tree Protocol. IEEE INFOCOM-97, April 1997.
[44] C. Shields and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. KHIP-A scalable protocol for secure multicast routing. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 29(4):53-64, October 1999.
[45] D. Steer, L.L. Strawczynski, W. Diffie, and M. Weiner. A Secure Audio Teleconference System. CRYPTO-88, 1988.
[46] M. Steiner, G. Tsudik, and M. Waidner. Diffie-Hellman key distribution extended to group communication. 3rd ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 31-37, March 1996.
[47] M. Waldvogel, G. Caronni, D. Sun, N. Weiler, , and B. Plattner. The VersaKey Framework : Versatile Group Key Management. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (Special Issues on Middleware), 17(8):1614-1631, August 1999.
[48] D. Wallner, E. Harder, and R. Agee. Key Management for Multicast : Issues and Architecture. National Security Agency, June 1999. RFC 2627.
[49] C. K. Wong, M. Gouda, and S. S. Lam. Secure Group Communications Using Key Graphs. ACM SIGCOMM, 1998.
[50] C. K. Wong, M. Gouda, and S. S. Lam. Secure Group Communications Using Key Graphs. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 8(1):16-30, February 2000.
[51] C.K. Wong and S.S. Lam. Keystone: A group Key Management Service. International Conference on Telecommunication, May 2000.
[52] Y.R. Yang, X.S. Li, X.B. Zhang, and S.S. Lam. Reliable Group Rekeying: A Performance Analysis. TR-01-21, June 2001.