Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31108
Epidemiology of Waterborne Diarrhoeal Diseases among Children Aged 6-36 Months Old in Busia - Western Kenya

Authors: D. M. Onyango, P. O. Angienda


The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiology of waterborne diarrhoeal among children aged 6-36 months old in Busia town, western Kenya. The study was carried out between Feb. 2008 and Feb. 2010. Cases of diarrhoea reported in 385 households were linked to household water handling practices. A mother with a child of 6-36 months old was also included in the study. Diarrhoea prevalence among children 6-36 months was 16.7% in Busia town, Bwamani (19.6%) and Mayenje (10.6%) clustered in Mayenje sub-location reported the highest and the lowest prevalence of diarrhoea. There was a positive correlation between the prevalence of diarrhoea in children and the level of the mother-s education, 29.9% (n= 100). Diarrhoea cases decreased in range from 35.5% (n =102) to 4.8% (n= 16), corresponding to increase in age from 6-35 months on average. In conclusion, prevalence of diarrhoea in children of 6-36 months old was 16.7% in Busia town. This was higher in children whose mother-s age was below 18 years and with low level of education, the rate decreased with increase in age of children. Prevalence of diarrhoea in children aged 6-36months in households was higher in children aged 6-17 and 36 months and whose mothers were less educated and fell between the ages of 18-24 years. The Influence of human activities at the main source of drinking water on the prevalence of diarrhoea in these children was insignificant.

Keywords: Children, Mortality, diarrhoea, Waterborne disease

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2326


[1] Magum A. Diarrhoea and related infections. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopaedia.; pp. 2067-2072, 2000.
[2] WHO Justin DeNormandie and Janette Sunita. Combating diarrhoeal disease in India through safe drinking water, Population Services International,Delhi,2000, ation/en/print.html.
[3] J. Bartram, "New water forum will repeat old message". Bulletin of the World Health Organization., 83 (3): 158, 2003.
[4] WHO. Selected publications and documents on diarrhoeal diseases (including cholera), 1999. url:http//
[5] WHO. Water and sanitation; Fact sheet NÂș 112: Health Communications and Public Relations, WHO, Geneva,, 1999.
[6] W. N. Kung-, P. M. Musau, A. Ochieng, E. G. Wachira, R. T. A. Omol, J. Rakwar, S. M. Muthwii, Y. Honda, M. Mudenyo, G. Koyengo and Y. Osaki, "Diarrhoea prevalence and risk factors in slums". Journal of National Institute for Public Health, 51(1): 73-76, 2002.
[7] M. Robert and P. Christine, "Water testing/solar water pasteurization in Kenya and Tanzania", Biological Sciences, Califonia University, Scramento, 2005.
[8] Health Sector Reform Secretariat (HSSR). The National Health Sector Strategic Plan, Ministry of Health; Republic of Kenya; 1999-2004.
[9] Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistical (CBS) abstract; Office of the vice-President, Ministry of Planning and National Development, Nairobi, Republic of Kenya; 1999.
[10] District Medical Officer of -Busia. Busia District Health Strategy work plan, Republic of Kenya; 1999-2001.
[11] S. R. A Huttly, "The impact of inadequate sanitary conditions on health in developing countries". World Health Statistics Quarterly, 43: 118- 126, 1990.
[12] GOK/UNICEF. Master plan of operations; programme of co-operation; Draft for presentation at preview meeting 1993 (1994-1998).
[13] Centre for Disease Control (CDC). Public Health and drinking water news brief; CDC issues health surveillance data on U.SA, E.coli outbreaks. http://www/, 2005.
[14] M. J. Blaser, P. D. Smith, J. I. Ravdin, H. B. Greenberg and R. L.Guerrant "Infections of the gastrointestinal tract". New York: Raven Press.1995.
[15] R. E. Black. Persistent diarrhoea in children of developing countries. Paediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 12 (9): 751-61, 1993.
[16] P. R. Hunter, "Waterborne disease epidemiology and ecology". Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 1997.
[17] M. Kosek, C. Bern, R. L. Guerrant, "The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 81 (3): 197-204, 2003.
[18] D. I. Guerrant, S. R. Moore, A. A. Lima , P. D. Patrick, J. B. Schorling, R. L. Guerrant. Association of early childhood diarrhoea and cryptosporidiosis with impaired physical fitness and cognitive function four-seven years later in a poor urban community in northeast Brazil. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 61 (5): 707-13, 1999.
[19] A. H. Baqui, R. E. Black, R. B. Sack, H. R. Chowdhury, M. Yunus, A. K. Siddique, "Malnutrition, cell-mediated immune deficiency, and diarrhoea: a community-based longitudinal study in rural Bangladesh children", American journal of epidemiology, 137 (3): 355-65, 1993.
[20] D. Rogers, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole and H. Tanaka, "The practice of public health",Oxford text book of Public Health; 4th ed. 2002.
[21] K. E. Byers, R. L. Guerrant, B. M. Farr, Fecal-oral transmission, In: Thomas JC, Webber DJ editor(s). "Epidemiologic methods for the study of infectious disease". Oxford University Press. 228-48, 2001.
[22] WHO /INICEF/WSSCC. Global water supply and sanitation assessment report. 2000; 92 (4): 1562021, 2000.
[23] WHO, 1993.
[24] J. C. Semenza, I. Robert, A. Henderson, J. Bogan, C. H. Rubin, "Water distribution system and diarrhoeal disease transmission; A case study in Uzbekistan", American Journal for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 59 (6); 941-946, 1998.
[25] J. Gasana, J. Morin, A. Ndikuyeze, P. Kamoso, "Impact of water supply and sanitation of diarrhoeal morbidity among young children in the socioeconomic and cultural context of Rwanda (Africa)", Environmental Research, 90 (2): 76-88, 2002.
[26] S. Luby, M. Agboatwalla, A. Raza A, J. Sobel, E. Mintz, K. Baier K, M. Rahbar, S. Quereshi, R. Hassan, F. Ghouri,, R. M. Hoekstra, E. Gangarosa, "A low-cost intervention for cleaner drinking water in Karachi, Pakistan". International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 5 (3); 144 - 150. 2001.
[27] C. C. Sudhakumari, T Kobayashi, H. Kajiura-Kobayashi, D. S. Wang, P. Makutsa, K. Nzaku, P. Ogutu,, P. Barasa, S. Ombeki, S. Mwaki, and R. Quick, "Challenges in implementing a point-of-use water quality intervention in rural Kenya". American Journal of Public Health, 91: 5171-1573. 2001.
[28] Central Bureau of Statistics. Ministry of Health (MOH-Kenya) and ORC Marco. Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Calverton, Maryland; CBS, MOH, and ORC Marco.2003.
[29] A. H. El-Gilany and S. Hammad "Epidemiology of diarrhoeal diseases among under age 5 years in Dakalia, Egypt". Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 11 (4): 763-774. 2005.
[30] Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistics abstract; Office of the Vice- President, Ministry of Planning and National Development, Nairobi; Republic of Kenya. 2001.
[31] C. Gleeson and N. Gray, "The coliform index and waterborne disease: problems of microbial drinking water assessment". London: Spon Press. 1997.
[32] L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, A. D. Eaton, editors, "Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater". 20th edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association and American Water Works Association. 1998.
[33] D. Onyango, F. Machoni, R. Kakai, E. N. Waindi, "Multidrug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Typhimurium isolated from clinical samples at two rural hospitals in western Kenya", J Infect Developing Countries. 2 (2): 106-111. 2008
[34] H. Chabalala and M. Hailmariam, "A dissertation on prevalence of waterborne diseases within Health facilities in Nakuru district, Kenya" 12-17, 2000.
[35] P. Ogutu, V. Garrett, P. Barasa, S. Ombeki, A. Mwaki and R. Quick, "Seeking safe storage: A comparison of drinking water quality in clay and plastic vessels"; water systems publications,, 2001.
[36] E. E. N. Nyangeri, "Rehabilitation of hand-dug wells and protected springs in Kisii, Kenya". Report Tampere University of Technology in co-operation with Finnish International Development Agency, FINNIDA No 29, 1986.