An Intelligent Controller Augmented with Variable Zero Lag Compensation for Antilock Braking System
Antilock braking system (ABS) is one of the important contributions by the automobile industry, designed to ensure road safety in such way that vehicles are kept steerable and stable when during emergency braking. This paper presents a wheel slip-based intelligent controller with variable zero lag compensation for ABS. It is required to achieve a very fast perfect wheel slip tracking during hard braking condition and eliminate chattering with improved transient and steady state performance, while shortening the stopping distance using effective braking torque less than maximum allowable torque to bring a braking vehicle to a stop. The dynamic of a vehicle braking with a braking velocity of 30 ms⁻¹ on a straight line was determined and modelled in MATLAB/Simulink environment to represent a conventional ABS system without a controller. Simulation results indicated that system without a controller was not able to track desired wheel slip and the stopping distance was 135.2 m. Hence, an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was designed with a variable zero lag compensator (VZLC) added to enhance the performance of FLC control variable by eliminating steady state error, provide improve bandwidth to eliminate the effect of high frequency noise such as chattering during braking. The simulation results showed that FLC-VZLC provided fast tracking of desired wheel slip, eliminated chattering, and reduced stopping distance by 70.5% (39.92 m), 63.3% (49.59 m), 57.6% (57.35 m) and 50% (69.13 m) on dry, wet, cobblestone and snow road surface conditions respectively. Generally, the proposed system used effective braking torque that is less than the maximum allowable braking torque to achieve efficient wheel slip tracking and overall robust control performance on different road surfaces.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 209
 P. C. Eze, B. O. Ekengwu, N. C. Asiegbu, and T. I. Ozue, “Adjustable gain enhanced fuzzy logic controller for optimal wheel slip ratio tracking in hard braking control system,” Adv. Electr. Electron. Eng., vol. 19, pp. 231–242, Sept. 2021.
 P. C. Eze, F. A. Aigbodioh, C. Muoghalu and I. H. Ezeanya, “Linear slip control for improved antilock braking system,” Int. Res. J. Adv. Eng. Sci., vol. 3, pp. 198–206, Feb. 2018.
 P. C. Eze and I. E. Achumba, “Investigation of slip minimization in vehicles under different drag coefficients,” in 2017 IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. on Electro-Technol. for Natl. Dev. (NIGERCON), 2017 pp. 1–9.
 A. A. Aly, E. Zeidan, A., Hamed, and F. Salem, “An antilock-braking systems (ABS) control: A technical review,” Intell. Control Autom., vol. 2, pp. 186-195, 2011.
 P. Girovský, J. Žilková, and J. Kaňuch, “Optimization of vehicle braking distance using a fuzzy controller,” Energies, vol. 13, pp. 1–15, 2020.
 I. Rizianiza and A. Djafar, “Design car braking system using Mamdani fuzzy logic control,” in 2017 4th Int. Conf. on Electr. Veh. Technol. (ICEVT), Oct. 2017, pp. 129–133.
 Y. He, C. Lu, J. Shen and C. Yuan, “Design and analysis of output feedback constraint control for antilock braking system with time-varying slip ratio,” Math. Probl. Eng., vol. 2019, pp. 1-11, Jan. 2019.
 V. R. Aparow, F. Ahmad, K. Hudha and H. Jamaludin, “Modelling and PID control of antilock braking system with wheel slip reduction to improve braking performance,” Int. J. Veh. Saf., vol. 6, pp. 265–296, Jan. 2013.
 C. Jain, R. Abhishek and A. Dixit, “Linear control technique for anti-lock braking system,” Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl., vol. 4, pp. 104–108, Aug. 2014.
 S. John and J. O. Pedro, “Hybrid feedback linearization slip control for anti-lock braking system,” Acta Polytech. Hung., vol. 10, pp. 81–99, 2013.
 M. Watany, “Performance of a road vehicle with hydraulic brake system using slip control strategy,” Am. J. Veh. Des., vol. 2, pp. 7–18, Nov. 2014.
 V. D. Gowda and A. C. Ramachandra, “Slip ratio control of anti-lock braking system with bang-bang controller,” Int. J. Comput Tech., vol. 4, pp. 97–104, Jan-Feb. 2017.
 M. Singh, A. Rani and V. Singh, “Wheel slip-based intelligent controller design for anti-lock braking system,” Adv. Res. Electr. Electron. Eng., vol. 1, pp. 82–88, 2014.
 G. Li, T. Wang, R. Zhang, F. Gu and J. Shen, “An improved optimal slip ratio prediction considering tyre inflation pressure changes,” J. Control Sci. Eng., vol. 2015, pp. 1–8, Nov. 2015.
 A. B. Sharkawy, “Genetic fuzzy self-tuning PID controllers for antilock braking systems,” Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell., vol. 23, pp. 1041–1052, 2010.
 V. Ćirović and D. Aleksendrić, “Adaptive neutron-fuzzy wheel slip control. Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 40, pp. 5197–5209, 2013.
 G. P. Incremona, E. Regolin, A. Mosca, and A. Ferrara, “Sliding mode control algorithms for wheel slip control of road vehicles,” in Proc. of the 2017 Am. Control Conf., ACC 2017, pp. 4297–4302.
 E. Kayacan, Y. Oniz and O. Kaynak, “A grey system modeling approach for sliding mode control of antilock braking system,” IEEE Trans. Industr. Electron., vol. 56, pp. 3244–3252, Aug. 2009.
 J. Sun, X. Xue and K. W. E. Cheng, “Fuzzy sliding mode wheel slip ratio control for smart vehicle anti-lock braking system,” Energies, vol. 12, pp. 1–22, Jun. 2019.
 S. Latreche and S. Benaggoune, “Robust wheel slip for vehicle antilock braking system with fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC),” Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 10, pp. 6368–6373, Oct. 2020.
 C.-M., Lin and C.-F. Hsu, “Self-learning fuzzy sliding-mode control for antilock braking system,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 11, pp. 273–278, 2003.
 A. Fattah, “Design and analysis of speed control using hybrid PID-Fuzzy controller for induction motors,” Master’s Theses, Western Michigan University, 2015.
 J. Guo, X. Jian, and G. Lin, “Performance evaluation of an anti-lock braking system for electric vehicles with a fuzzy sliding mode controller,” Energies, vol. 7, pp. 6459–6476, Oct. 2014.
 A. Alleyne, “Improved vehicle performance using combined suspension and braking forces,” Int. J. Veh. Mech. Mobility, vol. 27, pp. 235–265, 1997.
 C. Canudas-de-Wit, P. Tsiotras, E. Velenis, M. Basset, and G. Gissinger, “Dynamic friction models for road/tire longitudinal interaction,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., vol. 39, pp. 189–226, 2003.
 S. M. Savaresi and M. Tanelli, “Active braking control systems design for vehicles,” 1st ed. London: Springer-Verlag London, 2010.