Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30578
Significance of Bike-Frame Geometric Factors for Cycling Efficiency and Muscle Activation

Authors: Luen Chow Chan

Abstract:

With the advocacy of green transportation and green traveling, cycling has become increasingly popular nowadays. Physiology and bike design are key factors for the influence of cycling efficiency. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the significance of bike-frame geometric factors on cycling efficiency and muscle activation for different body sizes of non-professional Asian male cyclists. Participants who represented various body sizes, as measured by leg and back lengths, carried out cycling tests using a tailor-assembled road bike with different ergonomic design configurations including seat-height adjustments (i.e., 96%, 100%, and 104% of trochanteric height) and bike frame sizes (i.e., small and medium frames) for an assessable distance of 1 km. A specific power meter and self-developed adaptable surface electromyography (sEMG) were used to measure average pedaling power and cadence generated and muscle activation, respectively. The results showed that changing the seat height was far more significant than the body and bike frame sizes. The sEMG data evidently provided a better understanding of muscle activation as a function of different seat heights. Therefore, the interpretation of this study is that the major bike ergonomic design factor dominating the cycling efficiency of Asian participants with different body sizes was the seat height.

Keywords: bike frame sizes, cadence rate, pedaling power, seat height

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 115

References:


[1] Gojanovic B, Welker J, Iglesias K, Daucourt C, Gremion G. Electric bicycles as a new active transportation modality to promote health. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(11):2204–2010.
[2] Qin HM, Gao JQ, Kluger R, Wu YJ. Effects of perception on public bike-and-ride: A survey under complex, multifactor mode-choice scenarios. Transp Res Pt F-Traffic Psychol Behav. 2018;54:264–275.
[3] Arkesteijn M, Jobson SA, Hopker J, Passfield L. Effect of gradient on cycling gross efficiency and technique. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(5):920–6.
[4] Impellizzeri FM, Marcora SM, Rampinini E, Mognoni P, Sassi A. Correlations between physiological variables and performance in high level cross country off road cyclists. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(10):747–751.
[5] MacRae HSH, Hise KJ, Allen PJ. Effects of front and dual suspension mountain bike systems on uphill cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(7):1276–1280.
[6] Faria EW, Parker DL, Faria IE. The science of cycling: factors affecting performance. Sports Med. 2005;35(4):313–337.
[7] Price D, Donne B. Effect of variation in seat tube angle at different seat heights on submaximal cycling performance in man. J Sports Sci. 1997;15(4):395–402.
[8] Heil DP, Wilcox A, Quinn CM. Cardiorespiratory response to seat-tube angle variation during steady state cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(5):730–735.
[9] Bisi MC, Ceccarelli M, Riva F, Stagni R. Biomechanical and metabolic responses to seat-tube angle variation during cycling in tri-athletes. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012;22(6):845–851.
[10] Verma R, Hansen EA, de Zee M, Madeleine P. Effect of seat positions on discomfort, muscle activation, pressure distribution and pedal force during cycling. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2016;27:78–86.
[11] Christiaans HHCM, Bremner A. Comfort on bicycles and the validity of a commercial bicycle fitting system. Appl Ergon. 1998; 29(3):201–211.
[12] Disselhorst-Klug C, Schmitz-Rode T, Rau G. Surface electromyography and muscle force: limits in sEMG–force relationship and new approaches for applications. Clin Biomech. 2009;24(3):225–235.
[13] Enders H, Maurer C, Baltich J, Nigg BM. Task-oriented control of muscle coordination during cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(12):2298–2305.
[14] Enders H, VON VT, Nigg BM. Neuromuscular strategies during cycling at different muscular demands. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(7):1450–1459.
[15] Ericson MO, Nisell R, Arborelius UP, Ekholm J. Muscular activity during ergometer cycling. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1985;17(2):53–61.
[16] Sanderson DJ, Amoroso AT. The influence of seat height on the mechanical function of the triceps surae muscles during steady-rate cycling. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2009;19(6):e465–e471.
[17] Cicero S, Lacalle R, Cicero R, Fernandez D, Mendez D. Analysis of the cracking causes in an aluminium alloy bike frame. Eng Fail Anal. 2011;18(1):36–46.
[18] Tamborindeguy AC, Bini RR. Does saddle height affect patellofemoral and tibiofemoral forces during bicycling for rehabilitation? J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2011;15(2):186–191.
[19] Nemezio KMDA, Bertuzzi R, Correia-Oliveira CR, Gualano B, Bishop DJ, Lima-Silva AE. Effect of creatine loading on oxygen uptake during a 1-km cycling time trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(12):2660–2668.
[20] Bieuzen F, Lepers R, Vercruyssen F, Hausswirth C, Brisswalter J. Muscle activation during cycling at different cadences: effect of maximal strength capacity. J Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 2007;17(6):731–738.
[21] Sanderson DJ, Martin PE, Honeyman G, Keefer J. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle length, velocity and EMG responses to changes in pedaling cadence. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2006;16(6):642–649.
[22] Shennum PL, deVries HA. The effect of saddle height on oxygen consumption during bicycle ergometer work. Med Sci Sports. 1976;8(2):119–121.
[23] Nordeen-Snyder KS. The effect of bicycle seat height variation upon oxygen consumption and lower limb kinematics. Med Sci Sports. 1977;9(2):113–117.
[24] Gonzalez H, Hull ML. Multivariable optimization of cycling biomechanics. J. Biomech. 1989;22(11):1151–1161.
[25] Dorel S, Couturier A, Hug F. Influence of different racing positions on mechanical and electromyographic patterns during pedalling. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19(1):44–54.
[26] Bini RP, Hume PA, Lanferdini FJ, Vaz MA. Effects of body positions on the saddle on pedalling technique for cyclists and triathletes, Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(sup1):S413–S420.
[27] Fintelman DM, Sterling M, Hemida H, Li FX. Effect of different aerodynamic time trial cycling positions on muscle activation and crank torque. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26(5):528–534.
[28] Carlsson M, Wahrenberg V, Carlsson MS, Andersson R, Carlsson T. Gross and delta efciencies during uphill running and cycling among elite triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2020;120(5):961–968.