Potential Use of Local Materials as Synthesizing One Part Geopolymer Cement
The work on indigenous binders in this paper focused on the following indigenous raw materials: red clay, red lava and pumice (as primary aluminosilicate precursors), wood ash and gypsum (as supplementary minerals), and sodium sulfate and lime (as alkali activators). The experimental methods used for evaluation of these indigenous raw materials included laser granulometry, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, and chemical reactivity. Formulations were devised for transforming these raw materials into alkali aluminosilicate-based hydraulic cements. These formulations were processed into hydraulic cements via simple heating and milling actions to render thermal activation, mechanochemical and size reduction effects. The resulting hydraulic cements were subjected to laser granulometry, heat of hydration and reactivity tests. These cements were also used to prepare mortar mixtures, which were evaluated via performance of compressive strength tests. The measured values of strength were correlated with the reactivity, size distribution and microstructural features of raw materials. Some of the indigenous hydraulic cements produced in this reporting period yielded viable levels of compressive strength. The correlation trends established in this work are being evaluated for development of simple and thorough methods of qualifying indigenous raw materials for use in production of indigenous hydraulic cements.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12489929Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 478
 Brew, D. and K. MacKenzie, Geopolymer synthesis using silica fume and sodium aluminate. Journal of materials science, 2007. 42(11): p. 3990-3993.
 Yip Christina, K., et al., Effect of calcium silicate sources on geopolymerzation. Cem Concr Res, 2008. 38: p. 554-64.
 He, C., B. Osbaeck, and E. Makovicky, Pozzolanic reactions of six principal clay minerals: activation, reactivity assessments and technological effects. Cement and concrete research, 1995. 25(8): p. 1691-1702.
 Heller-Kallai, L., .2 Thermally Modified Clay Minerals. Developments in clay science, 2006. 1: p. 289-308.
 Muiambo, H.F., Inorganic modification of Palabora vermiculite. 2011, University of Pretoria.
 Mendelovici, E., Comparative study of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments on the structures of clay minerals. Journal of thermal analysis, 1997. 49(3): p. 1385-1397.
 Ambroise, J., et al., Hydration of synthetic pozzolanic binders obtained by thermal activation of montmorillonite. American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 1987. 66(12): p. 1731-1733.
 Kakali, G., et al., Thermal treatment of kaolin: the effect of mineralogy on the pozzolanic activity. Applied clay science, 2001. 20(1): p. 73-80.
 Sabir, B., S. Wild, and J. Bai, Metakaolin and calcined clays as pozzolans for concrete: a review. Cement and Concrete Composites, 2001. 23(6): p. 441-454.
 Bondar, D., et al., Effect of type, form, and dosage of activators on strength of alkali-activated natural pozzolans. Cement and Concrete Composites, 2011. 33(2): p. 251-260.
 Xu, H. and J.S. Van Deventer, Geopolymerisation of multiple minerals. Minerals Engineering, 2002. 15(12): p. 1131-1139.
 Buchwald, A., et al., The suitability of thermally activated illite/smectite clay as raw material for geopolymer binders. Applied Clay Science, 2009. 46(3): p. 300-304.
 Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C., et al., Clay reactivity: production of alkali activated cements. Applied Clay Science, 2013. 73: p. 11-16.
 Panagiotopoulou, C., et al., Dissolution of aluminosilicate minerals and by-products in alkaline media. Journal of Materials Science, 2007. 42(9): p. 2967-2973.
 Ganor, J. and A.C. Lasaga, Simple mechanistic models for inhibition of a dissolution reaction. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, 1998. 62(8): p. 1295-1306.
 Köhler, S.J., F. Dufaud, and E.H. Oelkers, An experimental study of illite dissolution kinetics as a function of pH from 1.4 to 12.4 and temperature from 5 to 50 C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2003. 67(19): p. 3583-3594.
 Wolff-Boenisch, D., et al., The dissolution rates of natural glasses as a function of their composition at pH 4 and 10.6, and temperatures from 25 to 74 C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2004. 68(23): p. 4843-4858.
 Criscenti, L.J., et al., Theoretical and 27 Al CPMAS NMR investigation of aluminum coordination changes during aluminosilicate dissolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2005. 69(9): p. 2205-2220.
 Cheng, H., et al., The thermal behavior of kaolinite intercalation complexes-A review. Thermochimica Acta, 2012. 545: p. 1-13.
 Cho, D.-W., et al., Adsorption of nitrate and Cr (VI) by cationic polymer-modified granular activated carbon. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2011. 175: p. 298-305.
 Fernández-Jimenez, A., et al., Quantitative determination of phases in the alkali activation of fly ash. Part I. Potential ash reactivity. Fuel, 2006. 85(5): p. 625-634.
 Garcia-Lodeiro, I., et al., Compatibility studies between NASH and CASH gels. Study in the ternary diagram Na 2 O–CaO–Al 2 O 3–SiO 2–H 2 O. Cement and Concrete Research, 2011. 41(9): p. 923-931.
 Shoval, S., et al., A fifth OH-stretching band in IR spectra of kaolinites. Journal of colloid and interface science, 1999. 212(2): p. 523-529.
 Fernández-Jiménez, A. and A. Palomo, Characterisation of fly ashes. Potential reactivity as alkaline cements☆. Fuel, 2003. 82(18): p. 2259-2265.
 Utracki, L.A., et al., Clays for polymeric nanocomposites. Polymer Engineering & Science, 2011. 51(3): p. 559-572.
 Alves, J., et al., Study of selection and purification of Brazilian bentonite clay by elutriation: a XRF, SEM and Rietveld analysis. Cerâmica, 2016. 62(361): p. 1-8.
 Baert, G., et al., Reactivity of fly ash in cement paste studied by means of thermogravimetry and isothermal calorimetry. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2008. 94(2): p. 485-492.
 Bentz, D.P., Influence of water-to-cement ratio on hydration kinetics: simple models based on spatial considerations. Cement and Concrete Research, 2006. 36(2): p. 238-244.
 Lam, L., Y. Wong, and C. Poon, Degree of hydration and gel/space ratio of high-volume fly ash/cement systems. Cement and Concrete Research, 2000. 30(5): p. 747-756.