Investigating the Effect of VR, Time Study and Ergonomics on the Design of Industrial Workstations
This paper presents the review of the studies on the ergonomics, virtual reality, and work measurement (time study) at the industrial workstations because each of these three individual techniques can be used to improve the design of workstations and task position. The objective of this paper is to give an overall literature review that if there is any relation between these three different techniques. Therefore, it is so important to review the scientific studies to find a better and effective way for improving design of workstations. On the other hand, manufacturers found that instead of using one of the approaches, utilizing the combination of these individual techniques are more effective to reduce the cost and production time.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3566313Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 446
 I. Lejárraga, H. L. Rizzo, H. Oberhofer, S. Stone, and B. Shepherd, "Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Global Markets: A Differential Approach for Services," OECD Trade Policy Papers, vol. 165, 2014.
 K. H. E. Kroemer, H. J. Kroemer, and K. E. Kroemer-Elbert, Engineering Physiology: Bases of Human Factors/Ergonomics, 3ed ed., 1994.
 B. Das, "An ergonomic approach to designing a manufacturing work system," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 231-240, 1987.
 S. Konz, Work design: Industrial Ergonomics, 2nd ed.: Grid Columbus, Ohio, 1995.
 R. M. Barnes, Motion and Time Study Design and Measurement of Work, 7th ed., 1980.
 R. Chawla and A. Banerjee, "A virtual environment for simulating manufacturing operations in 3D," in Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference, Arlington, 2001, pp. 991-997.
 T. Kesavadas and M. Ernzer, "Design of virtual factory using cell formation methodologies," American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Material Handling Division, pp. 201-208, 1999.
 G. Chryssolouris, D. Mavrikios, D. Fragos, and V. Karabatsou, "A Virtual Reality based experimentation environment for the verification of human related factors in assembly processes," Robotics & Computer Integrated Manufacturing vol. 16, No 4, pp. 267-276, 2000.
 J. Cecil and A. Kanchanapiboon, "Virtual engineering approaches in product and process design," International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 31, pp. 846-856, 2007.
 A. Freivalds, Niebel’s Methods, standards, and work design, 12th ed., 2008.
 P. Budnick, "What is Ergonomics Really About?," 2001.
 W. Jastrzebowski, "An outline of ergonomics, the science of work based upon the truths drawn from the science of nature," The Central Institute for Labour Protection, Warsaw, Poland, 1997.
 G. P. Dempsey, S. M. Wogalter, and A. P. Hancock, "What’s in a name? Using terms from definitions to examine the fundamental foundation of human factors and ergonomics science," Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 3-10, 2000.
 S. Casey, "Set Phasers on Stun and Other True Tales of Design, Technology, and Human Error," Aegean Publishing Company, Santa Barbara, California, USA, 1993.
 C. M.White, "Ergonomics: What is it?," The Bent of Tau Beta Pi, pp. 24-27, 2008.
 I. E. Association. (2016). Definition and Domains of Ergonomics. Available: http://www.iea.cc/whats/index.html
 A. Bhattacharya and J. D. MvGlothlin, Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Applications, 2nd ed., 2012.
 G. Li and P. Buckle, "Current techniques for assessing physical exposure to work-related musculoskeletal risks, with emphasis on posture-based methods," Ergonomics, vol. 42-NO. 5, pp. 674-695, 1999.
 J. Ringleberg and P. Voskamp, "Integrating Ergonomic Principles into C-Standards for Machinery Design," TUTB Proposals for Guidelines. Brussels: European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety, 1996.
 T. Armstrong, P. Buckle, and L. Fine, "A conceptual model for work-related neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders," Scand J Work Environ Health, vol. 19, pp. 73-84, 1993.
 E. N. Corlett, S. J. Madeley, and I. Manenica, "Posture targetting: a technique for recording working postures," Ergonomics, vol. 22, pp. 357-366, 1979.
 V. Z. Priel, "A numerical de® nition of posture," Human Factors, vol. 16, pp. 576-584, 1974.
 A. Bhattacharya and J. D. MvGlothlin, Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Applications, 2nd ed., 2012.
 V. Motus. (2014). Vicon Motus. Available: http://www.motus10.com/
 Vicon. (2012). Vicon Vintage. Available: http://www.vicon.com
 (1997). Kinemetrix 3-Dimensional Motion Analysis System. Available: http://www.mie-uk.com/kin/
 M. M. R. Ltd, "Simi reality motion systems," 1997.
 A. Dynamics. (1994). Ariel Dynamics. Available: http://www.arielnet.com/
 M. D. Bauman, A. Plamondon, and D. Gagnon, "Comparative assessment of 3D joint marker sets for the biomechanical analysis of occupational tasks," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 21, pp. 475-482, 1998.
 R. Kadefors and M. Forsman, "Ergonomic evaluation of complex work: a participative approach employing video computer interaction, exemplified in a study of order picking," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 25, pp. 435-445, 2000.
 G. Borg, "Psychophysical scaling with applications in physical work and the perception of exertion," Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, vol. 16, pp. 55-58, 1990.
 D. Dane, M. Feuerstein, G. Huang, L. Dimberg, and A. Lincoln, "properties of a self-report index of ergonomic exposures for use in an office environment.," Occup Environ Med, vol. 44, pp. 73-81, 2002.
 C. R. D.Reid, "Occupational Lower Extremity Risk Assessment Modeling," University of Central Florida, 2009.
 O. Karhu, P. Kansi, and I. Kuorinka, "Correcting working postures in industry: a practical method for analysis," Appl Ergon, vol. 8, pp. 199-201, 1977.
 S. H. Rodgers, "A functional job evaluation technique, in Ergonomics," Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, vol. 7, NO. 4, pp. 679-711, 1992.
 L. McAtamney and E. Corlett, "RULA: a survey method for the investigation of work-related upper limb disorders," Appl Ergon, vol. 24, pp. 91-99, 1993.
 S. Bao, N. Howarda, P. Spielholza, and B. Silversteina, "Two posture analysis approaches and their application in a modified Rapid Upper Limb Assessment evaluation Ergonomics," Taylor & Francis Ltd, vol. 50, No. 12, pp. 2118-2136, 2007.
 P. J. S. Gonçalves and N. O. Fernandes, "RULAmatic – A Semi-Automatic Posture Recognition System for RULA Risk Evaluation Method," in International Conference On Innovations, 2010, pp. 266-271.
 S.-W. Chang and M.-J. J. Wng, "Digital Human Modeling and Workplace Evaluation: Using an Automobile Assembly Task as an Example," Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing vol. 17 No. 5, pp. 445-455, 2007.
 A. Alzuheri, L. Luong, and K. Xing, "Ergonomics design measures in manual assembly work," in Engineering Systems Management and Its Applications (ICESMA), Second International Conference, 2010, pp. 1-6.
 A. Saptari, W. S. Lai, and M. R. Salleh, "Jig Design, Assembly Line Design and Work Station Design and their Effect to Productivity," Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 9-16, 2011.
 R. A. Prakash, B.S. Arun, N. Narayanan, and V. Yeshwanth, "Design of Workplace for the Assembly of Monoblock Pump," International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 349-355, 2013.
 N. A. Ansari and M.J, "Evaluation of work Posture by RULA and REBA: A Case Study," IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), vol. 11, NO. 4, Ver. III, pp. 18-23, 2014.
 R. Michael. (2002). The Strain Index Job Analysis Method: Q & A. Available: www.ergoweb.com/the-strain-index-job-analysis-method-q-a/
 S. Hignett and L. McAtamney, "Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)," Appl Ergon, vol. 31, pp. 201-205, 2000.
 D. Colombini and E. Occhipinti, "The Ocra index for risk assessment of WMSDs risk with repetitive movements of the upper limbs," presented at the The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 2000.
 J. Ridd, A. Nicholson, and A. Montan, "A portable microcomputer based system of ‘on-site’ activity and posture recording. In: Megaw," Contemporary Ergonomics. Tayor & Francis Group, pp. 366-371, 1989.
 A. V. d. Beek, L. V. Galen, and M. Frings-Dresen, "Working postures and activities of lorry drivers: a reliability study of on-site observation and recording on a pocket computer," appl Ergon, vol. 23, pp. 331-336, 1992.
 C. Wiktorin, M. Mortimer, L. Ekenval, A. Kilbom, and E. Hjelm, "HARBO, a simple computer-aided observation method for recording work postures," Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, vol. 21, pp. 440-449, 1995.
 C. Frasson-Hall, R. Gloria, A. Kilbom, J. Winkel, L. Karlqvist, and C. Wiktorin, "A portable ergonomic observation method (PEO) for computerised on line recording of postures and manual handling," Appl Ergon, vol. 26, pp. 93-100, 1995.
 N. D. Hashim, "Time study method implementation in manufacturing industry," Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, 2008.
 Walts. (1999). Virtual Reality. Available: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/virtual-reality
 L. C. Larijani, "The virtual reality primer," McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994.
 F. Kimura, "Product and process modeling as a kernel for virtual manufacturing environment," CIRP Annals, vol. 42, pp. 147-150, 1993.
 L. S. Flaig, "Alliances' future: The virtual enterprise: your new model for success," Electronic Business, vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 153-155, 1992.
 S. Ulin, T. J. Armstrong, and R. G. Radwin, "Use of computer aided drafting for analysis and control of posture in manual work," Applied Ergonomics, vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 143-151, 1990.
 B. Das and A. K. Sengupta, "Industrial workstation design: a systematic ergonomics approach," Applied Ergonomics, vol. 27, pp. 157-163, 1996.
 R. Feyen, Y. Liu, D. Chaffin, G. Jimmerson, and B. Joseph, "Computer-aided ergonomics: a case study of incorporating ergonomics analyses into workplace design," Applied Ergonomics, vol. 31, pp. 291-300, 2000.
 D. Sang, A. R. Kumar, and A, "A simulation study of an automotive foundry plant manufacturing engine blocks," in Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference, 2002.
 J. Laring, M. Forsman, R. Kadefors, and R. Örtengren, "MTM-based ergonomic workload analysis," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 30, pp. 135-148, 2002.
 U. Jayaram, S. Jayaram, I. Shaikh, Y. Kim, and C. Palmer, "Introducing quantitative analysis methods into virtual environments for real-time and continuous ergonomic evaluations," Computers in Industry, vol. 57, pp. 283-296, 2006.
 U. J. Udosen, "Ergonomic workplace construction, evaluation and improvement by CADWORK," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 219-228, 2006.
 F. Longo, G. Mirabelli, and E. Papoff, "Effective Design of an Assembly Line Using Modeling & Simulation," in Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, 2006, pp. 1893-1898.
 J. Santos, J. M. Sarriegi, N. Serrano, and J. M. Torres, "Using ergonomic software in non-repetitive manufacturing processes: A case study," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 37, pp. 267-275, 2007.
 A. Cimino, F. Longo, G. Mirabelli, and E. Papoff, "Industrial Workstations Design: A Real Case Study.," in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Modeling & Applied Simulation (MAS09), Tenerife, Spain, 2009.
 S. Vaclav, K. Senderska, and A. Mares, "Design of manual assembly workstations in Catia," Materials Science and Technology vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 41-49, 2010.
 I. H. Garbie, "An Experimental Study On Assembly Workstation Considering Ergonomically Issues," in 41st International Conference on Computers & Industrial Engineering, 2011, pp. 275-282.
 D. Grajewski, F. Górski, P. a. Zawadzki, and A. Hamrol, "Application of Virtual Reality Techniques in Design of Ergonomic Manufacturing Workplaces," Procedia Computer Science, pp. 289-301, 2013.
 C. Pontonnier, G. Dumont, and T. Duval, "Ergonomics and Virtual Reality: VISIONAIR Project examples," in Conference and Exhibition of the European Association of Virtual and Augmented Reality, 2014.
 C. Mahatme, S. Mahakalkar, V. Pradhan, and S. Sonwane, "Ergonomic Analysis and Workstation Design for Automation in Steel Industry," International Journal of Pure and Applied Research in Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 390-401, 2014.
 A. Kunz, M. Zank, T. Nescher, and K. Wegener, "Virtual reality based time and motion study with support for real walking," presented at the 49th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems (CIRP-CMS 2016), 2016.
 D. Zhou, X.-x. Zhou, Z.-y. Guo, and C. Lv, "A maintenance time prediction method considering ergonomics through virtual reality simulation," SpringerPlus, vol. 5, No. 1, 2016.