The State Support to the Tourism Policy Formation Mechanism in Black Sea Basin Countries (Azerbaijan, Turkey, Russia, Georgia) and Its Impact on Sustainable Tourism Development
The article analyzes state support and policy mechanisms aimed at driving tourism as one of the vibrant and rapidly developing economies. State programs and long-range strategic roadmaps and previous programs execution, results and their impact on the particular countries economy have been raised during the research. This theme provides a useful framework for discussions with a wider range of stakeholders as the implications arising are of importance both for academics and practitioners engaged in hospitality and tourism development and research. The impact that tourism has on sustainable regional development in emerging markets is highly substantial. For Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, and Russia, with their rich natural resources and cultural heritage, tourism can be an important basis for economic expansion, and a way to form an acceptable image of the countries as safe, open, hospitable, and complex.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3455701Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 628
 "Why Tourism? | World Tourism Organization UNWTO." Www2.unwto.org. N.p., 2019.
 Label, Sprouts. "Sprouts Label - The Bridge To The World." Sproutslabel.com
 Blank, Uel. The Community Tourism Industry Imperative. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, 1989. Print. pp 53, 135
 Edgell, David L. Managing Sustainable Tourism. 2nd ed. Routledge, 2016. Print.
 "International Tourists To Hit 1.8 Billion By 2030 | Communications." Media.unwto.org. N.p., 2011.
 Garden, Home, Environmental Science, and Green Science. "What Is Sustainable Tourism?." HowStuffWorks. N.p., 2019.
 Usaid.gov. N.p., 2019.
 Bramwell, B. and Lane, B. (1993) Sustainable tourism: An evolving global approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1, 1-5.
 Chan, E., & Wong, S. (2006). Motivations for ISO 14001 in the Hotel Industry. Tourism Management (Vol.27, Issue 3).
 Chan, W. W. (2009). Environmental Measures for Hotels’ environmental Management Systems -ISO 14001. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
 Goodman, A. 2000. Implementing sustainability in service operations at Scandic Hotels. Interfaces, pp.202-214
 Weaver, David Bruce. Sustainable Tourism: Theory and Practice. 1st ed. Oxford, UK: Elsevier LTD, 2006. Print.
 Wijesundara, Namal https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323413761_Adoption_of_Sustainable_Tourism_Practices_By_Hotel_Operators_in_Deep_South_of_Sri_Lanka/citations.
 https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284419340; Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals – Journey to 2030. Highlights
 Hwan Suk, Choi and Ercan Sirakaya, Sustainability indicators for managing community tourism. Tourism Management. Elsevier Ltd. Great Britain 27 (2006): 1279
 "7." www.Seap.usv.ro. N.p., 2017.
 Hardy, A. (2005), Using Grounded Theory to Explore Stakeholder Perceptions of Tourism, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. 3 (2):106
 Hunter, C. (2004), Sustainable tourism and the touristic ecological footprint. Environment, Development and Sustainability, Springer Netherlands (ISI Journal).
 Yunis, E. (2006), Seminar on Tourism sustainability and Local Agenda 21 in tourism destinations, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, p.19
 UNDP (2018). Future is in Tourism. http://www.tr.undp.org/content/turkey/en/home/projects/future-is-in-tourism.html
 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017. (2017). Europe and Eurasia results. http://reports.weforum.org/travel-and-tourism-competitiveness-report-2017/europe-and-eurasia-results/
 "United Nations Declares 2017 As The International Year Of Sustainable Tourism For Development | Communications." Media.unwto.org. N.p., 2015.
 Theneweconomy.com. (2014). Turkey must continue to encourage tourism and FDI.
[online] Available at: https://www.theneweconomy.com/business/turkey-must-continue-to-encourage-tourism-and-fdi
 Kultur.gov.tr. N.p., 2007.Tourism Strategy of Turkey 2023
 Homesinbodrum.com. (2015). Tourism | | Bodrum Properties & Homes for Sale.
[online] Available at: https://www.homesinbodrum.com/tourism/
 Griffith.edu.au. (2017). https://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0024/274308/Managing-Growth-_Sustainable-Tourism-Governance-in-Asia_Pacific.pdf
 Strategic Roadmap for the Development of Specialized Tourism Industry in the Republic of Azerbaijan (2016).
 Hajiyeva L.A. (2017). Turizm v Azerbayjane: statisticeskiy analiz i perspektivi razvitiya rinka
[Tourism in Azerbaijan: statistical analysis and prospects of market development]. Ekonomika I predprinimatelstvo
[Journal of Economics and Entrepreneurship], No3 (2), Moscow, p.329-332
 Statistical yearbook of Azerbaijan (2018). State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, 820 p
 Ereforms.org (2017) http://ereforms.org/store//media/ekspert_yazilari/islahat%20icmali/iyul/Turizmin_%C4%B0nki%C5%9Faf%C4%B1_En.pdf
 Salambaku.travel. (2018). Azerbaijan is asking tourists to “take another look” | Newsfeed | SalamBaku. http://salambaku.travel/en/newsfeed/single/45-azerbaijan-is-asking-tourists-to-take-another-look
 President.az. https://president.az/files/future_en.pdf
 Planet, Lonely. "Why Azerbaijan Is Asking Tourists To “Take Another Look”." Lonely Planet News. N.p., 2018.
 G. Erkomaishvili, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, N. Sagareishvili, (2016). Economic-Policy-of-Tourism-and-the-Development-Tendencies-of-Medical-Wellness-Resorts-in-Georgia-%20(1).pdf
 European Distributors of Statistical Software. Eurostat.com
 Tourism Statistics, 2015. National Statistics Office of Georgia. www.geostat.ge
 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017 http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TTCR_2017_web_0401.pdf
 Georgian Tourism in Figures 2016 - https://gnta.ge/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/ENG-2016.pdf
 Mills, Marta. "Tourism Boom In Georgia – Reasons To Celebrate?" Travindy.
 RARR, View. "Tourism Boom In Georgia – Reasons To Celebrate?" One Planet Blog on Sustainable Tourism. https://oneplanetblog.com/2017/12/15/tourism-boom-in-georgia-reasons-to-celebrate/
 Tourismconcern.org.uk. (2018). Tourism boom in Georgia – reasons to celebrate? https://www.tourismconcern.org.uk/tourism-boom-in-georgia-reasons-to-celebrate/
 Working towards a New National Tourism Strategy http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/georgia_-_3.pdf
 Social-Economic Development Strategy of Georgia “Georgia 2020” https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/linked-documents/cps-geo-2014-2018-sd-01.pdf
 Annaraud, Katerina (2010) "Accounting in Russia: Challenges for the Hospitality Stakeholders," Journal of Hospitality Financial Management: Vol.15: Iss. 2, Article 2. https://scholarworks.umass.edu/jhfm/vol15/iss2/2
 Arbinternational.es. (2017). https://arbinternational.es/ARCHIVO/documentos/ferias/145/1484651023_russia-outbound-tourism-report_oct_2016.pdf
 Marina Y. Sheresheva, (2018) "The Russian tourism and hospitality market: new challenges and destinations", Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, Vol. 10 Issue: 4, pp.400-411, https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-04-2018-0027
 Delener N., Service Science Research, Strategy and Innovation: Dynamic Knowledge Management Methods: Dynamic Knowledge Management Methods; IGI Global, 2012; pp 529
 Marina Sheresheva, John Kopiski, (2016) "The main trends, challenges and success factors in the Russian hospitality and tourism market", Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, Vol. 8 Issue: 3, pp.260-272, https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-02-2016-0004
 Anton O. Ovcharov, Marina V. Vasiljeva & Sergey S. Shirin - The Russian Tourist Industry: Structure, Trends, Competitiveness at the World Market; May, 2015
 Leonardo (Don) A.N. Dioko, (2016) "Progress and trends in destination branding and marketing – a brief and broad review", International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 10 Issue: 1, pp.5-13, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-12-2015-0145
 Federal Agency for Tourism (Rosturism). (2008). Russia’s Tourism Development Strategy till 2015. Retrieved from http://www.russiatourism.ru/search/ (01.02.2016.)
 OECD (2018), “Russian Federation”, in OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2018, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1787/tour-2018-55-en
 Government of the Russian Federation. (2014). Russia’s Tourism Development Strategy for till 2020. Retrieved from http://www.russiatourism.ru/contents/otkrytoe_agentstvo/strategiya-razvitiya-turizma-v-rossiyskoy-federatsii-v-period-do-2020-goda-332/ (21.02.2016.)
 Гареева Г.С. Tourism Industry in Russia: success and difficulties;
 Bobylev, Sergei, and Renat Perelet. Sustainable Development in Russia. 2013. http://www.rnei.de/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/SustainableRussia-WEB11.pdf
 “Concept for Long-Term Social and Economic Development of the Russian Federation 2020.” Oecd.Org, 2008, stip.oecd.org/stip/policy-initiatives/2017%2Fdata%2FpolicyInitiatives%2F15162
 Stupachenko, Ivan. “5 Russian Tourism Trends to Know about for 2016-2020.” Trekksoft.Com, 2016, www.trekksoft.com/en/blog/russian-tourism-trends
 “The Government Has Adopted a Tourism Development Program until 2020.” Atorus.Ru, 2012, www.atorus.ru/en/news/press-centre/new/19970.html.
 OECD (2010), “Tourism 2020: Policies to Promote Competitive and Sustainable Tourism”, in OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2010, OECD Publishing, Paris.