Overtopping Protection Systems for Overflow Earth Dams
Overtopping is known as one the most important reasons for the failure of earth dams. In some cases, it has resulted in heavy damages and losses. Therefore, enhancing the safety of earth dams against overtopping has received much attention in the past four decades. In this paper, at first, the overtopping phenomena and its destructive consequences will be introduced. Then, overtopping failure mechanism of embankments will be described. Finally, different types of protection systems for stabilization of earth dams against overtopping will be presented. These include timber cribs, riprap and gabions, reinforced earth, roller compacted concrete, and the precast concrete blocks.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3455613Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 449
 Xu, Y. and L. Zhang, Breaching parameters for earth and rockfill dams. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2009. 135(12): p. 1957–1970.
 Oswalt, N.R., et al., Alternatives for overtopping protection of dams. 1994, ASCE: New York.
 H.Chanson, Embankment overflow protection systems and earth dam spillways, in Dams: Impacts, Stability and Design, W.P.Hayes and M.C.Barnes, Editors. 2009, Nova Science. p. 101-132.
 H.Motiei, River control during dam construction. Vol. 32. 2000: Ministry of Energy-Iranian national committee of large dams.
 K.H. Frizell and J.F. Ruff. Embankment overtopping protection - Concrete blocks or riprap. in Water Resources Engineering, ASCE. 1995. New York: ASCE.
 G.L. Rubinshtein and G.V. Stefanovich, Overflow earth dam with a stepped downstream face. Hydrotechnical Construction, 1998. 32(10): p. 592-598.
 Grinchuk, A.S. and Y.P. Pravdivets, Precast reinforced-concrete revetment of earth slopes used for discharging water. Hydrotechnical Construction, 1977. 11(7): p. 682-687.
 Pravdivets, Y.P., Industrial design of an earth overflow dam. Hydrotechnical Construction, 1987. 21(12): p. 685-689.
 Baker, R., Precast concrete blocks for high-velocity flow applications. Journal of the Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 1990. 4(6): p. 552-558.
 Baker, R. and K. Gardiner. The construction and performance of a wedge block spillway at Brushes Clough Reservoir. in 8th Conf. British Dam Society. 1994. London: Thomas Telford.
 Frizell, K.H. and J.F. Ruff. Embankment overtopping protection-Concrete blocks or riprap. in Water Resources Engineering. 1995. New York: ASCE.
 Rafael, M., et al., Aliviadero con bloques en forma de cuña sobre la presa de barriga (Burgos). 2007, Comité Nacional Español de Grandes Presas: Spain.
 Relvas, A.T. and A.N. Pinheiro, Inception point and air concentration in flows on stepped chutes lined with wedge-shaped concrete blocks. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 2008. 134(8): p. 1042-1051.
 Relvas, A.T. and A.N. Pinheiro, Stepped chutes lined with wedge-shaped concrete blocks: Hydrodynamic pressures on blocks and stability analysis. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 2011a. 38(3): p. 338-349.
 Relvas, A.T. and A.N. Pinheiro, Velocity distribution and energy dissipation along stepped chutes lined with wedge-shaped concrete blocks. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 2011b. 137(4): p. 423-431.
 Sabbagh-Yazdi, S.-R., and Misaghian, M. (2016). "Effect of water infiltration through concrete block spillways on the slope stability of earth overflow dams." European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 21(9), 1114-1127, DOI: 10.1080/19648189.2016. 1150898.
 Hansen, K.D. RCC use in dam rehabilitation projects. in Roller compacted concrete dams: proceedings of the fourth International Symposium on Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) Dams. 2003. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
 Dolen, T.P. and F.Y. Abdo. Roller-compacted Concrete for Dam Safety Modifications. in 1st Brazilian Internatinal RCC Symposium. 2008.
 Abdo, F.Y. and W.S. Adaska, Performance Review of RCC Spillways and Overtopping Protection. 2007, Portland Cement Association: USA.
 ASCE Task Committee, Alternatives for overtopping protection of dams. 1994, New York: ASCE.
 Banthia, N., et al., Permeability of roller compacted concrete. Journal of materials in civil engineering, 1992. 4(1): p. 27-40.
 Huzjak, R.J., P.E., and B. Benson. Water under the Spillway -Catastrophic Failure Prevented. in ASDSO, Dam Safety 2004. Phoenix.
 Portland Cement Association, Design manual for RCC spillways and overtopping protection. 2002, PCA.