Growth and Yield Assessment of Two Types of Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrids as Affected by Deficit Irrigation
In order to evaluate the growth and yield properties of two Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids under different irrigation levels, an investigation was done in the experiment site of Collage of Agriculture, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region of Iraq (36°5´38⸗ N, 42°52´02⸗ E) in the years 2015-16. The experiment was conducted under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications, which main factor was irrigation treatments (I100, I75 and I50) according to evaporation pan class A and type of Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids (KH12SU9001, G1) and (KH12SU9002, G2) were factors of subplots. The parameters studied were: plant height (cm), number of green leaves per plant; leaf area (m2/m2), stem thickness (mm), percent of protein, fresh and dry biomass (ton.ha-1) and also crop water productivity. The results of variance analysis showed that KH12SU9001 variety had more amount of leaf area, percent of protein, fresh and dry biomass yield in comparison to KH12SU9002 variety. By comparing effects of irrigation levels on vegetative growth and yield properties, results showed that amount of plant height, fresh and dry biomass weight was decreased by decreasing irrigation level from full irrigation regime to 5 o% of irrigation level. Also, results of crop water productivity (CWP) indicated that improvement in quantity of irrigation would impact fresh and dry biomass yield significantly. Full irrigation regime was recorded the highest level of CWP (1.28-1.29 kg.m-3).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3455583Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 96
 H. Khan, W. Link, TJ. Hocking and FL Stoddard, “Evaluation of physiological traits for improving drought tolerance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.),” Plant and Soil, 2007, 292: 205-217.
 J. Diouf, “Agriculture, food security and water. Towards the blue revolution. OECD Observer,” No. 236. Refrence: http//www.oecdobserver. Org/news/fullstory. Php/aid/942. Html, 2003.
 E. Zerbini and D. Thomas, “Opportunities for improvement of nutritive value in sorghum and pearl millet residues in south Asia through genetic enhancement,” Field Crop Research, 2003, 84: 3–15.
 M. Ghahremani, A. Ebadi, Gh Parmoun and S. Jahanbakhsh, “Investigation of drought stress on photosynthesis and yield properties of forage sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L.),” Journal of Plant Protection Physiology, 2015, 7(25): 59-74 (In Persian).
 T. L. Tew, R. M. Cobill and E. P. Richard, “Evaluation of sweet sorghum and sorghum•sudangrass hybrids as feedstocks for ethanol production,” BioEnergy Res. 2007, 1: 147-152.
 A. Clark, “Managing cover crops profitably,” SARE Outreachss, 244 http://www.sare.org/publications/covercrops/covercrops.pdf, 2007.
 S. H. Ahmadi, M. N. Andersen, F. Plauborg, R. T. Poulsen, C. R. Jensen, A. R. Sepaskhah and S. Hansen, “Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes: Gas exchange and xylem (ABA),” Agri. Water Management, 2010, 97: 1486-1494.
 A. A. Alderfasi, M. M. Selim and B. A. Alhammad, “Evaluation of Plant Densities and Various Irrigation Regimes of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Under Low Water Supply,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2016, 8: 1-11.
 E. Fereres, and M. A. Soriano, “Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use,” J. Exp. Bot. 2007, 58: 147-159.
 A. Khazaee, A. Fooman,” Evaluation of drought resistance of different grain sorghums in deficit irrigation condition,” Journal of crop production, 2011, 5(3): 63-80 (In Persian).
 M. A. Shirazi Kharrazi, and M. R. Narouei Rad, “Evaluation of sorghum genotypes under drought stress conditions using some stress tolerance indices,” African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011, 10 (61): 13086-13089.
 A. N. Miller and M. J. Ottman, “Irrigation frequency effects on growth and ethanol yield in sweet sorghum,” J. Agron, 2010, 102(1): 60-70.
 A. Araya, L. Stroosnijder, G. Girmay and S. D. Keesstra,” Crop coefficient, yield response to water stress and water productivity of teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.),” Agricultural Water Management, 2011, 98:775–783.
 B. Krstić, and M. R. Sarić, "Concentrations of N, P, and K and dry matter mass in maize inbred lines," Genetic Aspects of Plant Mineral Nutrition, 1990, Vol. 42, pp. 25-31.
 A.A. Abdelmula, and S.A.I. Sabiel, "Genotypic and differential responses of growth and yield of some maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes to drought stress,” In Proceedings of the Tropical German Conference, Utilization of diversity in land, 2007, pp. 9-11.
 A. Yazar, F. Gokcel, and M. S. Sezen, “Corn yield response to partial rootzone drying and deficit irrigation strategies applied with drip system,” Plant, Soil and Environment, 2009, 55: 494–503.
 N. Adamtey, “Effect of N-enriched co-compost on transpiration efficiency and water –use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) under controlled irrigation,” Agric. Water Manage, 2010, doi:10.1016/j.agwat.
 Y. Emam, A. Ranjbari and M. J. Bahrani, “Evaluation of yield and yield components in wheat cultivars under post-anthesis drought stress,” J. Agric. Sci. Tech. Nat. Research, 2006, 11: 317-328.
 R. Cakir,” Effect of water stress at different development stages on vegetative and reproductive growth of corn,” Field Crops Res.2004, 89: 1-16.
 D. W. Wolfe, D. W. Henderson, T. C. Hsiao and A. Alvins, “Interactive water and nitrogen effects on senescence of maize. П. Photosynthetic decline and longevity of individual leaves,” Agron. J, 1988, 80: 865-870.
 J. Haberle, P. Svoboda and I. Raimanova, “The effect of post-anthesis water supply on grain nitrogen concentration and grain nitrogen yield of winter wheat,” Plant Soil and Environment, 2008, 54: 304-312.
 J. Osvald and M. Osvald, “Consequences due to water stress for the development and yield of Maize, Sorghum, Cabbage and Tomato plants,” Biološki vestnik, 1991, 39.1-2:129-135.
 X. Yang, X. Chen, Q. Ge, B. Li, Y.Tong, A. Zhang, Z. Li, T. Kuang and C. Lu, “Tolerance of photosynthesis to photoinhibition, high temperature and drought stress in flag leaves of wheat: a comparison between a hybridization line and its parents grown under field conditions,” Plant Science, 2006, 171:389–397.
 M. Tollenaar and T. B. Daynard, “Effect of source: sink ratio on dry matter accumulation and leaf senescence of maize,” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 1982, 62: 855–860.
 D. J. Molden, “Water for Food, Water for Life, Comprehensive Assessment of Water in Agricultur,” International Water Management Institute, Earthscan London, 2007.