Numerical Simulation of Axially Loaded to Failure Large Diameter Bored Pile
Ultimate capacity of large diameter bored piles is usually determined from pile loading tests as recommended by several international codes and foundation design standards. However, loading of this type of piles till achieving apparent failure is practically seldom. In this paper, numerical analyses are carried out to simulate load test of a large diameter bored pile performed at the location of Alzey highway bridge project (Germany). Test results of pile load settlement relationship till failure as well as results of the base and shaft resistances are available. Apparent failure was indicated in this test by the significant increase of the induced settlement during the last load increment applied on the pile head. Measurements of this pile load test are used to assess the quality of the numerical models investigated. Three different material soil models are implemented in the analyses: Mohr coulomb (MC), Soft soil (SS), and Modified Mohr coulomb (MMC). Very good agreement is obtained between the field measured settlement and the calculated settlement using the MMC model. Results of analysis showed also that the MMC constitutive model is superior to MC, and SS models in predicting the ultimate base and shaft resistances of the large diameter bored pile. After calibrating the numerical model, behavior of large diameter bored piles under axial loads is discussed and the formation of the plastic zone around the pile is explored. Results obtained showed that the plastic zone below the base of the pile at failure extended laterally to about four times the pile diameter and vertically to about three times the pile diameter.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2702717Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 M. W. O'Neill, and R. C. Reese (1999). Drilled Shafts: construction procedures and design methods. federal highway administration, Washington, d.c.
 M. Ezzat, M. Eid, A. Hefny, T. Sorour and Y. Zaghloul, Numerical Analysis of Large Diameter Bored Pile Installed in Multi Layered Soil: A Case Study of Damietta Port New Grain Silos Project, (2019). (Online) Inpressco.com. Available at: http://inpressco.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03.
 ECP 202/4. (2005). Egyptian code for soil mechanics – design and construction of foundations. Part 4, Deep foundations. The Housing and Building Research Center (HBRC), Cairo, Egypt.
 DIN 4014. (1990). German association for earthworks and foundation engineering, Deutsches Institute fur Normung, Berlin, Germany.
 AASHTO, LRFD Bridge Design Specification, (1998), SI units, Second Edition.
 H. Sommer, & P. Hammbach, (1974). Großpfahlversuche im Ton für die Gründung der Talbrücke Alzey. Der Bauingenieur Vol. 49: 310-317.
 G. G. Meyerhof (1986). “Theory and Practice of Pile Foundations”. In proceedings of the International Conference on Deep Foundations, Beijing, vol. 2, pp. 177-186.
 G. Mullins, S. Dapp and P. Lai (2000). “Pressure Grouting Drilled Shaft Tips in Sand”. New technological and design developments in deep foundations, N. D. Dennis, R. Castelli, and M. W. O’Neill, eds., ASCE, Reston.
 J. B. Hansen (1963). Discussion on hyperbolic stress-strain response in cohesive soils. ASCE, Vol. 89, SM4, pp. 241-242.
 F. K. Chin (1970). Estimation of the ultimate load of piles from tests not carried to failure. Proc., 2nd. South-East Asian Conf. on Soil Eng., Singapore, pp.81-90.
 F. M. El-Nahhas, Y. M. El-Mossallamy, and M. M. Tawfik, (2009), Assessment of the skin friction of large diameter bored piles in sand, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.
 J. H. Lee and R. Salgado (1999). Determination of Pile Base Resistance in Sands. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Eng., ASCE, vol. 125, no. 8, pp. 673 683.
 Y. El-Mossallamy (1999). Load-settlement behaviour of large diameter bored piles in over-consolidated clay. Proceeding of the 7th. International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geotechnical Engineering, Graz, Austria, September 1999, pp. 443-450.
 R. O. Davis, K. C. Change, and G. Mullenger (1989). Modeling of axially loaded piles: comparisons with pile test load. Computer and physical modeling in geotechnical, Rotterdam.
 S. V. Baars & W. V. Niekerk (1999). Numerical modelling of tension piles. In International Symposium on Beyond 2000 in Computational Geotechnics, pp. 237-246.
 H. Meibner, H. Shen and W. F. Van Impe (1993). Punching effects for bored piles. Conference on Deep Foundations and Auger Piles, Rotterdam.
 M. Wehnert and P. A. Vermeer (2004). Numerical Analyses of Load Tests on Bored Piles. Numerical Models in Geomechanics. NUMOG 9th. Ottawa, Canada.
 J. B. Burland (1965). The Yielding and Dilating of Clay. (Correspondence) Géotechnique Vol. 15: 211-214.
 R. B. Brinkgreve and P. A. Vermeer (1999). Edition manual of PLAXIS. Blkema, Rotterdam, Brookfield
 J. Ohde (1939). Zur Theorie der Druckverteilung im Baugrund.Der Bauingenieur Vol. 20: 451-459.
 N. Janbu (1963). Soil compressibility as determioned by oedometer and triaxial tests. Proc. ECSMFE, Wiesbaden, Vol. 1:19-25.
 A. E. Groen (1995), Elastoplastic Modelling of Sand Using a Conventional Model. Tech. Rep. 03.21.0.31. 34/35, Delft University of Technology.
 Fitsum Teshome & Araz Ismail, (2011), Analysis of deformations in soft clay due to unloading. Master’s Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engi-neering Division of GeoEngineering, Chalmers Uni.
 F. H. Kulhawy and P. W. Mayne (1989), “Manual on estimating soil properties for foundation design.” Rep. No. EPRI EL-6800, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif. 2–25.
 MIDAS GTS NX user manual, Analysis Reference chapter 4 materials, Section 2. Plastic Material Properties.
 C. Moormann, (2002). Trag- und Verformungsverhalten tiefer Baugruben in bindigen Böden unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Baugrund-Tragwerk- und der Baugrund- Grundwasser-Interaktion. Mitteilungen des Institutes und der Versuchsanstalt für Geotechnik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt: Heft 59.
 K. M. Rollins, R. J. Clayton, R. C. Mikesell and B.C. Blaise (2005), Drilled Shaft Side Friction in Gravelly Soils. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 8, pp. 987-1003.
 E. Franke (1976). Pile foundations – single piles. Proceedings of the 6th ECSMFE, Wien, Vol. 2.1: 83-102.
 F. T. Touma & L. C. Reese (1972). Behavior of bored piles insand. Proceedings of the ASCE Vol.100 NO.GT7: 749-761.