The Effects of Physical Activity and Serotonin on Depression, Anxiety, Body Image and Mental Health
Sport has found a special place as an effective phenomenon in all societies of the contemporary world. The relationship between physical activity and exercise with different sciences has provided new fields for human study. The range of issues related to exercise and physical education is such that it requires specialized sciences and special studies. In this article, the psychological and social sections of exercise have been investigated for children and adults. It can be used for anyone in different age groups. Exercise and regular physical movements have a great impact on the mental and social health of the individual in addition to body health. It affects the individual's adaptability in society and his/her personality. Exercise affects the treatment of diseases such as depression, anxiety, stress, body image, and memory. Exercise is a safe haven for young people to achieve the optimum human development in its shelter. The effects of sensorimotor skills on mental actions and mental development are such a way that many psychologists and sports science experts believe these activities should be included in training programs in the first place. Familiarity of students and scholars with different programs and methods of sensorimotor activities not only causes their mental actions; but also increases mental health and vitality, enhances self-confidence and, therefore, mental health.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1474445Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1657
 World health organization. Mental health policy and service guidance package, Geneva, 2005.
 AA. Noorbala, K. Mohammad, SA. Bagheri Yazdi, MT. Yasemi, “Looking for visage mental health inthe Iran,” Research project Red Crescent Society, 2001.
 JR. Macmahon, “The psychological benefits of exercise and the treatment of delinquents,” Adolescents Sports Med,” 1990; 9(6):344-51.
 MK. Atifwahid, “Mental health in Iran: Achievements and challenges,” Journal of Social Welfare,” 4(14): pp. 57-41, 2002.
 AG. Parker, SE. Hetrick, AF. Jorm, AR. Yung, PD. McGorry, A. Mackinnon, B. Moller, R. Purcell, “The effectiveness of simple psychological and exercise interventions for high prevalence mental health problems in young people: a factorial randomized controlled trial,” parkeretd. Trials; 12:76. 2011.
 Y. Terjestam, J. Jouper Johanssonc,“ Effects of scheduled gigong exercise on pupilswell-being, self-image, distress, and stress,” Jaltern Complement,”; 16(9), pp. 939-440, 2010.
 M. Nazer, S. Hasani, GH. Sardoie, AR. Sayadi Anari, “The effectiveness of station designed sports on mental health of female teenagers,” J Health and Society,” 6, NO 3 and 4, 2012.
 T. F. Cash, “Body-image affect: Gestalt versus summing the parts. Perceptual and Motor Skills,” 69(1): pp. 17-18. 1989.
 D A. J. Rowe, Benson, T. A. Baumgartner, “Development of body self-image questionnaire,” Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science,” vol. 3(3), pp.233-247, 1999.
 T F. Cash, K. L. Hicks, “Being fat versus thinking fat: Relationships with body image, eating behaviors, and well-being,” Cognitive Therapy and Research,” vol. 14(3), pp. 327-341, 1990.
 S. Nye, T. F. Cash, “Outcomes of mineralization cognitive-behavioral body image therapy with eating disordered women treated in a private clinical practice,” International journal of eating disorders,” 39(1): pp. 31-40, 2006.
 T. MacDonald, “The relative effectiveness of aerobic exercise and yoga in reducing depression symptoms among female clinical sample,” (Thesis for Master of Science), Clinical psychology, Acadia University; pp. 1-7, 2006.
 S. H. Hessenly, “The effect of aerobic on state and trait body image and physical fitness among college women,” (Ph.D. dissertation of philosophy), Old Dominion University, pp. 8-9, 1995.
 E. Fisher, J. K. Thompson, “A comparative evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus exercise therapy (ET) for the treatment of body image disturbance,” Behavior Modification, vol. 18(2): pp. 171- 185, 1994.
 M. M. Scott, D. A. Cohen, K. R. Evenson, J. Elder, D. Catellier, S. Ashwood, et al. “Weekend schoolyard accessibility physical activity and obesity: The trial of activity in adolescent girls (TAAG) study,” Prevention Medicine,” vol. 44(5), pp. 398-403, 2007.
 A H. Hausenblas, E. A. Fallon, “Exercise and body image: A meta-analysis,” Journal of Psychology and Health,” vol. 21(1): pp. 33-47, 2006.
 R N. Henry, M H. Anshel, T. Michael, “Effect of aerobic and circuit training on fitness & body-image among women,” Journal of Sport Behavior; vol. 22(4), 281, 2006.
 S S. Banfield, M. P. McCabe, “An evaluation of the construct of body Image,” Adolescence,” vol. 37(3), pp. 373-393, 2002.
 C. Paddock, “Could physical activity protect children from depression?,” Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl,” 31 January 2017.
 J. Cairney, B. Faught, J. Hay, T. Wade, & L. Corna, “Physical activity and depressive symptoms in older adults,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health,” vol. 2(1): pp. 98-114, 2005.
 Y. Netz, MJ. Wu, B. Becker, & G. Tenenbaum, “Physical activity and psychological well-being in advanced age: A meta-analysis of intervention studies,” Psychology and Aging,” vol. 20(20), pp. 272-284, 2005.
 P. Gareri, P. DeFazio, G. DeSarro, “Neuropharmacology of depression in aging and age-related diseases,” Ageing Research Review,” vol. 1(1), pp. 113-34, 2002.
 JF. Salgado, “The big five personality dimensions and counterproductive behavior,” International Journal of Selection and Assessment,” vol. 10, pp. 117-125, 2002.
 JM. Cont, RR. Jacobs, “Validity evidence linking polyhcronicity and big five personality dimensions to lateness and supervisory performance rating,” Journal of Human Performance,” vol. 16(2): pp. 107-109, 2003.
 N. Norvell, D. Belles, “Psychological and physical benefits of circuit weight trouning in law enforcement personal,” J Consult- Clinical psychology,” vol. 12, 89, 1998.
 TG. Plante, Robin, “Phtsical fitness and enhanced psychological health,” Current – psychology - Research and review,” vol. 21: pp. 36-39, 2006.
 Np. Pronk, SF. Course, JJ. Rohack, “Maximal and acute mood response in women,” J physiology Behavior,”27, pp. 56-62, 2005.
 S. Eyigor, H. Karapolat, B. Durmaz, “Effects of a group-based exercise program on physical performance, Muscle strength and quality of life in older women,” Gerontology and Geriaterics 2008; 45(3): 259-271.
 M. Bahram, M. J. Pourvaghar, G. Akkasheh, “The Effect of 8 weeks pilates training on depression treatment on retired work men, ”jgn,” vol. 1 (2), pp. 31-42, 2015.
 Z. Rashidi, A. Daneshfar, M. Shojaei, R. Bagherian-Sararoudi, R. Rouzbahani, SM. Marandi, et al. “Scrutiny effects of eight-weeks pilates exercise on women’s postmenopausal depressive symptoms,” J Isfahan Med Sch,” vol. 31(231), pp. 408-15, 2013.
 S. Metel, A. Milert, “Joseph pilates' method and possibilities of its application in physiotherapy,” Medical Rehabilitation,” vol. 11(2), pp. 19-28, 2007.
 Z. Mohamadi Dinani, M. Nezakatolhossaini, F. Esfarjani, M. Etemadifar, “The effect of 8-week pilates training on motor function and depression in subjects with Multiple Sclerosis (MS),” J Res Rehabil Sci,” vol. 9(2), pp. 308-17, 2013.
 A. Dadashpoor, MR. Mahmoodkhani, R. Mohammadi, “Effect of anaquatic exercise on depression level in male elderly,” J Res Rehabil Sci,” vol. 8(6), pp. 1095-102, 2012.
 E. McAuley, S. Elavsky, RW. Motl, JF. Konopack, L, Hu, DX. Marquez, “Physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem: longitudinal relationships in older adults,” Journal of Gerontology Behavior Psychology Science,” vol. 60 (5), pp. 268-75, 2005.
 United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group, “Intensive blood glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with Type 2,” DM (UKPDS 33). Lancet, 352: 837- 53, 1998.
 VJ. Cary, EE. Walters, GA. Colditz, CG. Solomon, WC. Williett, BA. Rosner, et al. “Body fat distribution and risk of non- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women: the Nurses’ Health Study,” Am J Epidemiol, 145, pp. 614-9, 1997.
 F. Hu, R. Sigal, EJ. Richard, G. Colditz, C. Solomon, W. Willett, et al. “Walking compared with vigorous physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in women,” JAMA, 282, pp. 1433- 9, 1999.
 NS. Peirce. “Diabetes and exercise,” Br J Sports Med, 33, pp. 161-72, 1999.
 EJ. Mayer -Davis, A. D’Antonio, C. Tudor-Locke, “Lifestyle for diabetes prevention. In: Franz M J, editors. A core curriculum for diabetes education: Diabetes in the life cycle and program management,” 5th ed. Chicago, IL: American Association of Diabetes Educators, pp. 1- 30, 2003.
 M. Sardar, M. Sohrabi, A. Shamsian, R. Aminzadeh, “Effects of Aerobic Exercise training on the Mental and Physical Health and Social Functioning of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,” Iranian Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol 11 No. 3, 2009.
 KS. Vickers, MA. Nies, CA. Patten, R. Dierkhising, A. Steven, “Patients With Diabetes and Depression May Need Additional Support for Exercise,” Am J Health Behavi, 30: PP. 353-62, 2006.