Heavy Metal Concentration in Gills and Bones of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Jega River, Kebbi State, Nigeria
A study was conducted to assess some heavy metal concentration (Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)) in the gills and bones of Oreochromis niloticus obtained from Jega river. 30 fish samples were collected from March to July 2014 (fortnightly). Bones and gills were used for the assessment of some heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Results indicated that Pb was not detected in both gills and bones but Fe, Cd, Zn and Cu were present in both the gills and bones of the fish samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in gills were; Fe 3.37±1.10, Cd 0.62±0.08, Zn 6.21±0.11 and Cu 1.28±0.10 mg/kg. The concentrations of heavy metals in bones: Fe 13.08±1.00 mg/kg, Cd 0.99±0.06 mg/kg, Zn 1.28±0.10 mg/kg and Cu 2.23±0.20 mg/kg. The results were found to be within the internationally acceptable standard limits. However, the consumption of small amounts of the identified heavy metals in fish could lead to gradual accumulation over a long period of time and exert toxic effects to consumers. Efforts should be made by the Government to provide appropriate channels for waste disposal to reduce impact on fish.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316660Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 330
 M. Z. Moustafa and E. M. El-Sayed “Impact of Water Pollution with Heavy Metals on Fish Health: Overview and Updates”. GlO. Vet., Vol. 12, no. 2, pp 219-231, 2014.
 R. B. Dianne and J. M. William “Heavy metal poisoning and its laboratory investigation”. Ann. Cl. Bioch., Vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 267 – 314, 1999.
 J. Barbara and W. Malgorzata “The metal uptake and accumulation in fish living in polluted waters”. Soil and Water Pollution Monitoring, Protection and Remediation, Vol. 3, no. 23, 2006. Pp. 107-114.
 Ibemenuga, KN. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of some heavy metals in freshwater fishes. Ani. Res. Internl., 2013; 10(3): 1792 – 1798.
 A. M. Babatunde, O. A. Waidi and A. A. Adeolu “Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish (Hydrocynus forskahlii, Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis and Clarias gariepinus) organs in Downstream Ogun coastal water, Nigeria. Transnational J. Sc. & Tech, Vol. 2, no. 5:pp 119-133, 2012.
 K. N. Ibemenuga “Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of some heavy metals in Freshwater fishes”. Ani. Res. Internat., Vol. 10, no. 3, 2010: pp 1792 – 1798.
 B. I. Uneke and I. Aloh. Concentration of Heavy Metals (Zn, Cd, Pb) in Kidney and Gill of Catfish (Clarias spp.) in Ebonyi River, Southeastern Nigeria. AASCIT Journal of Bioscience 2015; 1(2): 9-14.
 Z. Zheng, H. Li, L. Jin, W. Zhen-bin “Analysis of Heavy Metals of Muscle and Intestine Tissue in Fish – in Banan Section of Chongqing from Three Gorges Reservoir, China”. Pol. J. Environ. Stud, Vol. 16, no. 6): pp 949-958, 2007.
 H. H. Essa and H. Z. Rateb “Residues of Some Heavy Metals in Freshwater Fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Labeo niloticus) in Assiut city markets”. Assiut University Bulletin of Environmental Resourses, Vol. 14, no. 1, 2011:pp 31-39.
 F. H. Bashir, M. S. Othman, A. G. Mazlan, S. M. Rahim and K. D. Simon “Heavy Metal Concentration in Fishes from the Coastal Waters of Kapar and Mersing, Malaysia”. TurK J. Fish.& Aqu. Sci., Vol.13, 2013: pp 375-382.
 S. Benzer, H. Arslan, N. Uzel, A. Gül and M. Yılmaz “Concentrations of metals in water, sediment and tissues of Cyprinus carpio from Mogan Lake (Turkey)”. Iranian J. Fish. Sci., Vol. 12, no. 1, 2013: pp 45-55.
 J. M. Muiruri, H. N. Nyambaka and M. P. Nawiri “Heavy metals in water and tilapia fish from Athi-Galana-Sabaki tributaries, Kenya”. Inter. Food Res. J, Vol. 20, no. 2: pp891-896. 2013.
 C. K. Shivakumar, B. Thippeswamy, M. V. Tejaswikumar and S. M. Prashanthakumara “ Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and its Effect on Organs of Edible Fishes Located in Bhadra River, Karnataka”. Int. J. Res. Fis. & Aqu., Vol.4, no.2:pp 90-98, 2014.
 Location of Jega River. Retrieved on 15th May, 2016 from Microsoft Encarta, 2007).
 I. Novozamsky, V. J. G. Houba, R. van Eck and W. van Vark “A novel digestion technique for multi-element plant analysis”. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 14, 1983: pp 239-248.
 S. M. Al-Weher “Levels of Heavy Metal Cd, Cu and Zn in Three Fish Species Collected from the Northern Jordan Valley, Jordan”. Jordan J. Bio. Sc., Vol. 1, no. 1, 2008: pp41-46.