Critical Terrain Slope Calculation for Locating Small Hydropower Plants
As known, the water energy is a renewable and clean source of energy. Energy production from hydropower has been the first, and still is today a renewable source used to generate electricity. The optimal location and sizing of a small hydropower plant is a very important issue in engineering design which encourages investigation. The aim of this paper is to present a formula that can be utilized for locating the position of a small hydropower plant although there is a high dependence on economic, environmental, and social parameters. In this paper, the economic and technical side of the problem is considered. More specifically, there is a critical terrain slope that determines if the plant should be located at the end of the slope or not. Of course, this formula can be used for a first estimate and does not include detailed economic analysis. At the end, a case study is presented for the location of a small hydropower plant in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed formula.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1315825Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 550
 M. Guney and K. Kaygusuz, “Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems: A technology status review,” Renew. and Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 14, pp. 2996-3004, 2010.
 M. Sachin, S. Singal and D. Khatod, “Optimal installation of small hydropower plant—A review,” Renew. and Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 15, pp. 3862-3869, 2011.
 Y. Aslam, O. Arslan, and C. Yasar, “A sensitivity analysis for the design of small-scale hydropower plant: Kayabogazi case study,” Renew. Energy, vol. 33, pp. 791-801, 2008.
 H. Vermaak, K. Kusakana and S. Koko, “Status of micro-hydro kinetic river technology in rural applications,” Renew. and Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 29, pp. 625-633, 2014.
 ESHA, Guide on How to Develop a Small Hydropower Plant, 2004.
 Singal, S., Saini, R. and Raghuvanshi, C., “Analysis for cost estimation of low head run-of-river small hydropower schemes,” Energy for Sustain. Devel., vol. 14, pp. 117-126, 2010.
 J. McKinney, Microhydropower Handbook. Idaho: U.S Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, 1983.
 M. Sachin, S. Singal and D. Khatod, “A review on electromechanical equipment applicable to small hydropower plants,” Int. j. of Energy Res., vol. 36, pp. 553-571, 2012.
 G. Aggidis, E. Luchinskaya, R. Rothschild and D. Howard, “The costs of small-scale hydro power production: Impact on the development of existing potential,” Renew. Energy, Issue 35, pp. 2632-2638, 2010.
 C. Tzimopoulos, Αgricultural Ηydraulic. Thessaloniki Greece: ZITI, 1982.
 G. Papaevangelou, C. Evangelides and C. Tzimopoulos, “A new explicit equation for the Friction coefficient in the Darcy - Weisbach equation,” X International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment, July 5 – 9, Corfu, Greece, 2010.
 S. Dingman, Physical Hydrology. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co., 1994.
 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineering and Design Run off From Snowmelt. Washington, 1998.
 D. Koutsogiannis and T. Xanthopoulos, Engineering Hydrology. Athens Greece: National Technical University of Athens, 1999.
 A. Ardalan, Economic & Financial Analysis for Engineering & Project Management. Maryland: Technomic Publising CO.INC., 2000.
 J. Anagnostopoulos and D. Papantonis, “Optimal sizing of a run-of-river small hydropower plant,” Energy Convers. Manage., Issue 48, pp. 2663-2667, 2007.
 D. Kaliampakos and D. Damigos, Environmental and Water Resources Economics. Athens: National Technical University of Athens, 2008.
 R. Brealey, S. Myers and A. Marcus, Fundamentals of Corporate Finance. Phoenix: Mc Graw-Hill Primis Custom Publishing, 2001.
 I. Welch, Corporate Finance An Introduction, Prentice Hall, 2009.
 J. Russell and R. Cohn, Internal Rate of Return. New Jersey: Book on Demand, 2012.