Solar-Inducted Cluster Head Relocation Algorithm
A special area in the study of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is how to move sensor nodes, as it expands the scope of application of wireless sensors and provides new opportunities to improve network performance. On the other side, it opens a set of new problems, especially if complete clusters are mobile. Node mobility can prolong the network lifetime. In such WSN, some nodes are possibly moveable or nomadic (relocated periodically), while others are static. This paper presents an idea of mobile, solar-powered CHs that relocate themselves inside clusters in such a way that the total energy consumption in the network reduces, and the lifetime of the network extends. Positioning of CHs is made in each round based on selfish herd hypothesis, where leader retreats to the center of gravity. Based on this idea, an algorithm, together with its modified version, has been presented and tested in this paper. Simulation results show that both algorithms have benefits in network lifetime, and prolongation of network stability period duration.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1315796Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 433
 G. Djukanovic, G. Popovic, “Applying FMEA to multi-tier converged M2M-WMSN,” In Proc. International scientific conference UNITECH 2013, Gabrovo, 2013, pp. 47-52.
 G. Popovic, G. Djukanovic, “Cluster formation techniques in hierarchical routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Јournal of Information Technology and applications (JITA), vol. 1, pp. 5-11, July 2016.
 W.R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, “Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” In Proc. IEEE Computer Society Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS '00), Hawaii, 2000, pp. 1-10.
 A. Depedri, A. Zanella, Verdone, “An Energy Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” In: Proc. AINS, 2003, pp. 1-6
 L. Qian, H. Zhu, “An Energy Balanced Clustering Algorithm Based on LEACH Protocol” In: Proc. 2nd International Conference On Systems Engineering and Modeling (ICSEM-13), Paris, France, pp-72-73
 C. Gongben, W. Shaorong. W, ”A Novel Node Deployment and Clustering Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. Second International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security, ISECS '09, Nanchang, China, pp.499 – 503
 D.S. Kim, Y.J. Chung, “Self-organization routing protocol supporting mobile nodes for wireless sensor network,” In Proc. First International Multi-Symposiums on Computer and Computational Sciences, 2006, Hangzhou, China
 J. Rezazadeh, “Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks Overview,” International Journal of Computer Communications and Networks (IJCCN), 2, 2012, pp. 17-22.
 H. Mansouri, F. Moutaouakil, H. Medromi, “An autonomous intelligent gateway for wireless sensor network based on mobile node,” International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2014.
 T. Razandralambo, M. Erdelj, D. Zorbas, E. Natalizio, “Spread and Shrink: Point of Interest Discovery and Coverage with Mobile Wireless Sensors,” Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 2016.
 B. Wang, H.B. Lim, D. Ma, “A survey of movement strategies for improving network coverage in wireless sensor networks,” Journal of Computer Communications 2009, pp. 1427–1436.
 X. N Fan, Y. L. Song, “Improvement on LEACH protocol of wireless sensor network,” In Proc. International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, Sensor Comm., 2007. Valencia, pp. 260-264.
 D. Dembla, H. Shivam, “Analysis and Implementation of Improved - LEACH protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (I-LEACH),” In Proc. IJCSC, IJ, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2013, pp.8-12.
 H. Junping, J. Yuhui and D. Liang, “A time-based cluster-head selection algorithm for LEACH,” In Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), 2008, pp. 1172-1176.
 D. Zhixiang and Q. Bensheng, “Three-layered routing protocol for WSN based on LEACH algorithm,” In Proc. IEEE Communications conference on Wireless, Mobile and Sensor Networks (CCWMSN), 2007. pp. 72-75.
 T. Voigt, H. Ritter, J. Schiller, A. Dunkels and J. Alonso, “Solar-aware Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. Ninth IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, Alexandria, 2004, pp. 238-243.
 C. Gongben, W. Shaorong, “A Novel Node Deployment and Clustering Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. Second International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security (ISECS '09), Nanchang, 2009, pp. 499- 503.
 J. Islam, M. Islam and N. Islam, “A-sLEACH: An Advanced Solar Aware LEACH Protocol for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. Sixth International Conference on Networking (ICN '07), Sainte-Luce, 2007; Sainte-Luce,
 D.S. Kim, Y.J. Chung, “Self-organization routing protocol supporting mobile nodes for wireless sensor network,” In Proc. First International Multi-Symposiums on Computer and Computational Sciences (IMSCCS '06); Hangzhou, 2006, pp. 622-626.
 G.T. Sibley, M.H. Rahimi and G.S. Sukhatme, “Robomote: a tiny mobile robot platform for large-scale ad-hoc sensor networks,” In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA, Washington DC, 2002, pp. 1143-1148.
 M. Ma, Y. Yang, “Clustering and load balancing in hybrid sensor networks with mobile cluster heads,” In Proc. 3rd International Conference on Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Wired/Wireless Networks, Waterloo, 2006.
 T. Banerjee T, B. Xie, J.H. Jun and D.P. Agrawal, “Increasing lifetime of wireless sensor networks using controllable mobile cluster heads,” Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, vol. 3, pp. 313–336, 2010.
 S. Sendra, L. Parra, J. Lloret and S. Khan, “Systems and Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Animal and Natural Behavior,” Int J Distrib Sens N, vol. 2, pp. 1-19, 2015.
 S. Kumar, S.M. Kusuma, “Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks based on Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Animal’s Social Behavior,” International Journal of Computer Applications, 2014, vol. 87, no 8, pp. 20-27.
 T. Camilo, C. Carreto, J.S. Silva, F. Boavida, “An energy-efficient ant-based routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks,” In Proc. 5th International Workshop on Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm Intelligence (ANTS), LNCS, vol. 4150, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2006, pp. 49–59.
 G. Chen, T.-D. Guo, W.-G. Yang, T. Zhao, “A swarm-based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks,” In. Proc. IEEE International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Work-sharing, 2006.
 A. Barve, M.J. Nene, “Survey of Flocking Algorithms in Multi-agent Systems,” International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI) vol. 6, pp. 110-117, 2013.
 S.S. Singh, M. Kumar, R. Saxena and Priya, “Application of Particle Swarm Optimization for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey,” International Journal of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology (IJESAT), vol. 5, pp. 1246-1250, 2012.
 P. Antoniou, A. Pitsillides, T. Blackwell, A. Engelbrecht and L. Michael, From Bird Flocks to Wireless Sensor Networks: A Congestion Control Approach, Tech. Rep. TR-11-5, University of Cyprus, Cyprus, 2011.
 Z. Ruihua, J. Zhiping, L. Xin and H. Dongxue, “Double clusterheads clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks using PSO,” In Proc. 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA '11), Beijing, 2011. pp. 763-766.
 M.J. Showkat, B. Paul, M.A. Matin and M.S. Alam, “Optimal Sink Location in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization,” In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Antennas, Propagation and Systems IEEE INAS 2009; Johor Bahru, 2009, pp. 116:1-5.
 W.D. Hamilton, “Geometry for the selfish herd,” J Theor Biol, vol. 31, pp. 295-311, 1971.