A Study of the Replacement of Natural Coarse Aggregate by Spherically-Shaped and Crushed Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass in Concrete
The aim of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the influence of complete replacement of natural coarse aggregate with spherically-shape and crushed waste cathode ray tube (CRT) glass to the aspect of workability, density, and compressive strength of the concrete. After characterizing the glass, a group of concrete mixes was prepared to contain a 40% spherical CRT glass and 60% crushed CRT glass as a complete (100%) replacement of natural coarse aggregates. From a total of 16 types of concrete mixes, the optimum proportion was selected based on its best performance. The test results showed that the use of spherical and crushed glass that possesses a smooth surface, rounded, irregular and elongated shape, and low water absorption affects the workability of concrete. Due to a higher specific gravity of crushed glass, concrete mixes containing CRT glass had a higher density compared to ordinary concrete. Despite the spherical and crushed CRT glass being stronger than gravel, the results revealed a reduction in compressive strength of the concrete. However, using a lower water to binder (w/b) ratio and a higher superplasticizer (SP) dosage, it is found to enhance the compressive strength of 60.97 MPa at 28 days that is lower by 13% than the control specimen. These findings indicate that waste CRT glass in the form of spherical and crushed could be used as an alternative of coarse aggregate that may pave the way for the disposal of hazardous e-waste.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1314486Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1184
 Q. Xu, G. Li, W. He, J. Huang, X. Shi, "Cathode ray tube (CRT) recycling: current capabilities in China and research progress," Waste Manag., vol. 32, pp. 1566–1574, Apr. 2012.
 V. B. Kreng, H. T. Wang, "A technology replacement model with variable market potential - an empirical study of CRT and LCD TV," Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol. 76, pp. 942–951, Feb. 2009.
 A. M. Rashad, "Recycled cathode ray tube and liquid crystal display glass as fine aggregate replacement in cementitious materials," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 93, pp. 1236–1248, May 2015.
 S. Maschio, G. Tonello, E. Furlani, "Recycling glass cullet from waste crts for the production of high strength mortars," J. Waste Manag., vol. 2013, pp. 1–8, May 2013.
 T.-C. Ling, C.-S. Poon, "Use of CRT funnel glass in concrete blocks prepared with different aggregate-to-cement ratios," Green Mater., vol. 2, pp. 43–51, Mar. 2014.
 T. Ling, C. Poon, "Use of recycled CRT funnel glass as fine aggregate in dry-mixed concrete paving blocks," J. Clean. Prod., vol. 68, pp. 209–215, Jan. 2014.
 P. Walczak, J. Małolepszy, M. Reben, K. Rzepa, "Mechanical properties of concrete mortar based on mixture of crt glass cullet and fluidized fly ash," Procedia Eng., vol. 108, pp. 453–458, 2015.
 J. Li, M. Guo, X. Qiang, C.S. Poon, "Recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash and cathode ray tube funnel glass in cement mortars," J. Clean. Prod., Mar. 2017.
 H. Zhao, C. S. Poon, "A comparative study on the properties of the mortar with the cathode ray tube funnel glass sand at different treatment methods," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 148, pp. 900–909, May 2017.
 D. Romero, J. James, R. Mora, C.D. Hays, "Study on the mechanical and environmental properties of concrete containing cathode ray tube glass aggregate," Waste Manag., vol. 33, pp. 1659–1666, Apr. 2013.
 T. C. L. Hui Zhao, Chi Sun Poon, "Properties of mortar prepared with recycled cathode ray tube funnel glass sand at different mineral admixture," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 40, pp. 951–960, Nov. 2013.
 G. Sua-iam, N. Makul, "Use of limestone powder during incorporation of Pb-containing cathode ray tube waste in self-compacting concrete," J. Environ. Manage., vol. 128, pp. 931–940, Jul. 2013.
 ASTM C1240, "Standard specification for silica fume used in cementitious mixtures," in Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 4th ed. vol. 15.02, ASTM Int., United States, 2004, pp. 693 – 699.
 ASTM C33, "Standard specification for concrete aggregates," in Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 4th ed. vol. 04.02, ASTM Int., United States, 2003, pp. 12-22.
 ASTM C136, "Standard test method for sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates," in Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 4th ed. vol. 04.02, ASTM Int., United States, 2010, pp. 100-104.
 ASTM C127, "Standard test method for density, relative density (specific gravity), and absorption of coarse aggregate," in Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 7th ed. vol. 04.02, ASTM Int., United States, 2009, pp. 83-88.
 ASTM C29, "Bulk density (‘unit weight’) and voids in aggregate," in Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 9th ed. vol. 04.02, ASTM Int., United States, 2004, pp. 1-5.
 ASTM D 4791, "Standard test method for flat particles, elongated particles, or flat and elongated particles in coarse aggregate," in Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 3rd ed. vol. 04.02, ASTM Int., United States, 2011, pp. 6–11.
 IS 2386, "Standard methods for aggregates for concrete, part IV mechanical properties, in Indian Standard, 10th ed vol. 4, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2002, pp. 1-37.
 ASTM C143, "Standard test method for slump of hydraulic-cement concrete, in Annual Book of ASTM Standard," 3rd ed. vol. 04.02, ASTM Int., United States, 2003, pp. 111-114.
 ASTM C138, "Standard test method for density (unit weight), yield and air content (gravimetric)," in Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 3rd ed. vol. 04.02, ASTM Int., United States, 2007, pp. 105 - 108.
 BS EN12390, "Testing hardened concrete, part 3: compressive strength of test specimens," in British Standard, Brussels, Belgium, 2009, pp. 1-22.
 ACI E1-99, "Aggregates for concrete," in ACI Education Bulletin, American Concrete Inst., United States of America, 1999, pp. 1–26.
 AC1 211.4R-08, "Guide for selecting proportions for high-strength concrete using Portland cement and other cementitious material," 1st ed, American Concrete Institute, United States of America, 2008, pp. 1-29.
 ACI 363R, "State-of-the-art report on high-strength concrete," Reapproved 1997, American Concrete Institute, United States of America, 1997, pp. 1-49.
 A. M. Neville, "Properties of Concrete," Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd., India, 2013.
 H. Zhao, C.S. Poon, T.C. Ling, "Utilizing recycled cathode ray tube funnel glass sand as river sand replacement in the high-density concrete," J. Clean. Prod., vol. 51, pp. 184–190, Jan. 2013.
 S. Y. Choi, Y. S. Choi, E. I. Yang, "Effects of heavy weight waste glass recycled as fine aggregate on the mechanical properties of mortar specimens," Ann. Nucl. Energy., vol. 99, pp. 372–382, Sept. 2017.
 IS 456, "Indian standard: plain and reinforced concrete - code of practice," in Indian Standard, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2000, pp. 1-114.
 C. J. Zega, A. Antonio, D. Maio, "Recycled concretes made with waste ready-mix concrete as coarse aggregate," J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 23, pp. 281–286, Mar. 2011.
 S. H. Chen, C. S. Chang, H. Y. Wang, W. L. Huang, "Mixture design of high performance recycled liquid crystal glasses concrete (HPGC)," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 25, pp. 3886–3892, May 2011.
 H. Santos, F. Puertas, S. Martínez-Ramírez, M. Palacios, "Polycarboxylate superplasticiser admixtures: effect on hydration, microstructure and rheological behaviour in cement pastes," Adv. Cem. Res., vol. 17, pp. 77–89, Apr. 2005.
 B. Taha, G. Nounu, "Utilizing waste recycled glass as sand/cement replacement in concrete," J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 21, pp. 709–721, Dec. 2009.
 A. B. Keryou, G. B. Ibrahim, "Effect of using windows waste glass as coarse aggregate on some properties of concrete," Eng Tech J. vol. 32, pp. 1519–1529, Mar. 2014.
 Z. Z. Ismail, E. A. AL-Hashmi, "Recycling of waste glass as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete," Waste Manag., vol. 29, pp. 655–659, Oct. 2009.
 N. L. Rahim, R. Che Amat, N. M. Ibrahim, S. Salehuddin, S.A. Mohammed, M. Abdul Rahim, "Utilization of recycled glass waste as partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete production," Mater. Sci. Forum., vol. 803, pp. 16–20, Jul. 2015.
 E. E. Ali, S. H. Al-Tersawy, "Recycled glass as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in self compacting concrete," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 35, pp. 785–791, Apr. 2012.
 P. Dinakar, P.K. Sahoo, G. Sriram, "Effect of metakaolin content on the properties of high strength concrete," Int. J. Concr. Struct. Mater., vol. 7, pp. 215–223, May 2013.
 F. E. Amparano, Y. Xi, Y. S. Roh, "Experimental study on the effect of aggregate content on fracture behavior of concrete," Eng. Fract. Mech., vol. 67, pp. 65–84, Mar. 2000.
 N. Wongkornchaowalit, V. Lertchirakarn, "Setting time and flowability of accelerated portland cement mixed with polycarboxylate superplasticizer," J. Endod., vol. 37, pp. 387–389, Mar. 2011.
 M. Mazloom, A. Hassanloo, Effect of silica fume and superplasticizers on tensile strength of concrete," in Our World Concr. Struct., Singapore, 2009, pp. 360–366.
 R. Dubey, P. Kumar, "Effect of superplasticizer dosages on compressive strength of self compacting concrete," Int. J. Civ. Struct. Eng., vol. 3, pp. 360–366, Nov. 2012.
 A. Kostrzanowska-Siedlarz, J. Gołaszewski, "Rheological properties and the air content in fresh concrete for self compacting high performance concrete," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 94, pp. 555–564, Jul. 2015.
 F. Rajabipour, H. Maraghechi, G. Fischer, "Investigating the alkali-silica reaction of recycled glass aggregates in concrete materials," J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 22, pp. 1201–1208, Dec. 2010.
 A. Shayan, A. Xu, "Performance of glass powder as a pozzolanic material in concrete: A field trial on concrete slabs," Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 36, pp. 457–468, Dec. 2006.
 T. C. Ling, C. S. Poon "Use of recycled CRT funnel glass as fine aggregate in dry-mixed concrete paving blocks," J. Clean. Prod., vol. 68, pp. 209–215, Jan. 2014.
 T. C. Ling, C.S. Poon, "Feasible use of recycled CRT funnel glass as heavyweight fine aggregate in barite concrete," J. Clean. Prod., vol. 33, pp. 42–49, May 2012.