Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30843
A Review on Hydraulic and Morphological Characteristics in River Channels Due to Spurs
Abstract:An optimal design of a spur is the first requirement to make it sustainable and function properly. In view of that, a thorough understanding to the hydro- and morpho-dynamics due to spurs is essential. This paper presents a literature review on the effect of spurs to obtain the most recent design criteria. Perpendicular and upstream aligned impermeable spurs have large disturbances to flow and less stability because of strong vortices and associated scour. Downstream aligned spurs minimize scour holes, but there is a chance of strong return current which could be controlled allowing flow through them. A series arrangement of spurs is important to have the desired results with a special care for the first one. Several equations have been presented in the paper for predicting the scour depth. But, they have to be used carefully. Different flow environments developed by spurs are favorable for various aquatic species. However, it is important to maintain almost a stable flow condition providing stable spurs.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132174Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 705
 M.M. Rahman and Y. Muramoto, “Prediction of Maximum Scour Depth around Spur-Dike-Like Structures,” Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, JSCE, 1999, 43: 623-628.
 T. Ishigaki, and Y. Baba, “Local scour induced by 3D flow around attracting and deflecting groins,” Proc. of 2nd International Conference on Scour and Erosion, Meritus Mandarin, Singapore, Nov, 2004, 14-17, 301-308.
 A. Safarzadeh, S.A.A.S. Neyshabouri, and A.R. Zarrati, “Experimental investigation on 3D turbulent flow around straight and T-shaped groynes in a flat-bed channel,” J. Hydraul. Eng., ASCE, 2016, 04016021-1-15.
 R.K. Tambe, and D. Kulkarni, “Studies of effect of length of the permeable spur on various hydraulic parameters,” Int. Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 6(2), 2017, 3046-3064.
 M.M. Hossain, “Study of River Bank Stabilization in a Bend by Groin,” M.Sc. Thesis, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1981.
 A.T.M. Khaleduzzaman, “Experimental Study on River Course Stabilization and Restoration by using Groin-like Structures,” M. Sc. Thesis, Kyoto University, Japan, 2004.
 M. Vaghefi, M. Shakerdargah, M. Akbari, “Numerical investigation of the effect of Froude number on flow pattern around a submerged T-shaped spur dike in a 90o bend,” Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences, 2015, 266-277.
 Y. Muto, K. Kitamura, Y. Baba & H. Nakagawa, “Field Measurement of Velocity Distribution in Groin Fields with ADCP,” Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, JSCE, 2005, 49.
 A. Acharya, A. Acharya, and J. Duan, “Three dimensional simulation of flow field around series of spur dikes,” International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES), 2013, 2, 36–57.
 M. Kumar, and A. Malik, “3D simulation of flow around different types of groyne using ANSYS Fluent,” Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR), 2016, 2(10), 418-426.
 M. Vaghefi, M. Alavinezhad, and M. Akbari, “The effect of submergence ratio on flow pattern around short T-head spur dike in a mild bend with rigid bed using numerical model,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, 2016, 1-9.
 W. S. J. Uijttewaal, D. Lehmann, and A. van Mazijk, “Exchange process between a river and its spur fields - model experiments,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE. 127(11), 2001, 928-936.
 G. Constantinescu, A. Sukhodolov, A. McCoy, “Mass exchange in a shallow channel flow with a series of groynes: LES study and comparison with laboratory and field experiments,” Env. Fluid Mech., 2009, 9:587–615.
 M. Alauddin, and T. Tsujimoto, “Optimum design of groynes for stabilization of lowland rivers,” Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, JSCE, Vol.55, 2011, pp.145-150.
 S.M. Kehe, Streamback Protection by Use of Spur Dikes , M.S. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 1984.
 E. V. Richardson, M. A. Stevens, and D. B. Simons, “The design of spurs for river training,” XVIth IAHR congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1975, 382-388.
 J. A. M. Alvarez, “Design of groins and spur dikes.” Proceedings 1989 National Conference On Hydraulic Engineering, New Orleans, 1989, 296-301.
 A.A. Dehghani, H.Md. Azamathulla, S.A. Hashemi Najafi, S.A. Ayyoubzadeh, “Local scouring around L-head groynes,” Journal of Hydrology, 504, 2013, 125–131.
 F.Y. Chen, and S. Ikeda, “Horizontal separation in shallow open channels dykes,” Journal of Hydro-science and Hydraulic Engineering, 15(2), 1997, 15-30.
 H. Zhang, and H. Nakagawa, “Investigation on morphological consequences of spur dyke with experimental and numerical methods,” Advances in Hydro-science and Engineering (Wang, Kawahara, Holtz, Tsujimoto & Toda eds), 8, September 8-12, 2008, Nagoya, Japan, CD-ROM.
 A. Molinas, K. Kheireldin, and B. Wu, “Shear stress around vertical wall abutments. J. Hydraul. Eng., ASCE. 128, 1998, 811-820.
 J. Ho, H.K. Yeo, J. Coonrod, and W.S. Ahn, “Numerical modeling study for flow pattern changes induced by single spur,” 32nd Congress of IAHR, Italy, 2007, CD-ROM.
 Uddin, M.N. (2010). Flow and erosion processes at bends and around river training works in a sand bed braided river, PhD Thesis, IWFM, BUET.
 Przedwojski, B., Blazejewski, R., and Pilarczyk, K. W. (1995). River training techniquesfundamentals, design and application. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
 A. P. P. Termes, van M. der Wal, and H. J. Verheij, “Water beweging door scheepvaart op rivieren en in kribvakken,” Q1046, WL|Delft Hydraulics, Delft, 1991.
 M. Kurzke, V. Weitbrecht and G.H. Jirka, “Laboratory concentration measurements for determination of mass ex-change between groin field and main stream,” River Flow, Bousmar & Zech (eds.): 1, 2002. 369-376.
 W. S. J. Uijttewaal, “Spur field velocity patterns determined with particle tracking velocimetry,” 28th IAHR congress, Graz, Austria, 1999.
 H. Zhang, Flow and Bed Evolution in Channels with Spur Dykes, Doctoral Thesis, Kyoto University, 2005.
 R.A. Kuhnle, C.V. Alonso, and F.D.Jr. Shields, Geometry of scour holes associated with 90o spur dykes. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 125 (9), 1999, 972-978.
 Kuhnle, R.A., Alonso, C.V. and Shields, F.D.Jr. (2002). Local scour associated with angled spur dikes. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE. 128 (12), 1087-1093.
 S. Aya, I. Fujita, and N. Miyawaki, “2-D models for flows in river with submerged groins.” 27th IAHR Congress, San Francisco, CA. USA, 1997, 829-837.
 J. Peng, Y. Kawahara, and N. Tamai, “Numerical analysis of three-dimensional turbulent flows around submerged groynes.” 27th IAHR congress, San Francisco, USA, 1997.
 R.J. Garde, K. Subramanian, and K.D. Nambudripad, “Study of scour around spur-dikes,” J. Hydraul. Div.,Am.Soc. Civil.Eng., 87(HY6), 1961, 23-37.
 Khasaf, Experimental investigation of scour and deposition around spur-dikes”,Msc thesis, college of engineering, university of Baghdad, Iraq, 1991.
 M.M., Ezzeldin, T.A. Saafan, O.S. Rageh, and L.M. Nejm, “Local scour around spur dikes. Eleventh International Water Technology Conference, IWTC11 2007, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.
 H. Zhang, and H. Nakagawa, “Characteristics of local flow and bed deformation at impermeable and permeable spur dykes,” Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, JSCE. 53, 2009, 145-150.
 M. Alauddin, Morphological stabilization of lowland rivers by using a series of Groins, PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Nagoya University, Japan, 2011.
 B.W. Melville, “Local scour at bridge pier,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE. 118 (4), 1992, 615-631.
 B.W. Melville, “Bridge abutment scour in compound channels,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE. 121 (12), 1995, 863-868.
 B.W. Melville, “Pier and abutment scour: A integrated approach,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 123 (2), 1997, 125-136.
 P.A. Johnson, “Comparison of pier-scour equations using field data,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, vol.121 (8), 1995, 626-629.
 Y. Chiew, and B.W. Melville, “Temporal development of local scour at bridge piers,” Proc. of the North American Water and Environment Congress (CDs). Anaheim, CA, ASCE, 1999.
 U.C. Kothyari, and K.G. Ranga Raju, “Scour around spur dikes and bridge abutments,” Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR. 39 (4), 2001, 367-374.
 S.E Coleman, C.S. Lauchlan, and B.W. Melville, “Clear-water scour development at bridge abutments,” Journal of Hydraulic Research. IAHR, 41(5), 2003, 521-531.
 S. Dey, and A.D. Barbhuiya, “Time variation of scour at abutments, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering,” ASCE.131 (1), 2005, 11-23.
 G. Lacey, “Stable Channels in Alluvium,” Paper 4736, Proc. Of Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 229, William Clowes & Sons Ltd., London, U.K. P., 1930, 259-292.
 C.C. Inglis, “The behaviour and control of Rivers and canals (with the aid of models),” Publication No-13, Central Water Power and Navigation Research Station, Poona, India, 1949.
 M. A. Gill, “Erosion of sand beds around spur dikes,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 98(HY9), 1972, 1587-1602.
 P.C. Klingeman, S.M. Kehe, and Y.A. Owusu, “Streambank erosion protection and channel scour manipulation using rockfill dikes and gabions” Rep. No. WRRI- 98, Water Resources Research Institute, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Oregon, 1984.
 G.J.C.M. Hoffmans, and H.J. Verheij, Scour manual, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1997.
 M. Ahmad, “Experiments on design and behavior of spur-dikes.” Proc. Int. Hydraul. Convention. 1953, 145–159
 M.K., Liu, F.M. Chang, M.M. Skinner, “Effect of bridge construction on scour and backwater,” Report No. CER60-HKL22, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1961.
 T. Blench, Mobile Bed Fluviology, University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1969.
 C.R. Neill, Guide to bridge hydraulics, Toronto and Buffalo: RTAC, University of Toronto Press, 1973.
 K. Suzuki, M. Michiue, and O. Hinokidani, “Local bed form around a series of spur dikes in alluvial channels,” XXII IAHR Congress, Lausanne, Belgium, 1987, 316-321.
 G.J. Klaassen, and K. Vermeer, “Channel characteristics- tics of the braiding Jamuna River, Bangladesh,” Proc. of International Conference on River Regime, Wallingford, England, 1988.
 T. W. Wang, and N. Yanapirut, “Channel bed degradation caused by constriction.” 6th Congress, Asian and Pacific Regional Division, IAHR, Kyoto, Japan, 1988, 285-292.
 M.M. Rahman, and M.A. Haque, “Local scour estimation at bridge pier site: modification and application of Lacey formula,” International Journal of Sediment Research. 18(4), 2003, 333-339.
 A.M. Dawood. A study of scour and deposition around spurs. MSc Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kufa, Iraq, 2013.
 H. Karami, A. Ardeshir, M. Saneie, K. Behzadian, and F. Jalilsani, “Reduction of local scouring with protective spur dike,” Proc. of the World Environmental and Water Resources congress. ASCE, Hawaii, USA, 2008.
 Y.J. Jourabi, A. Ardeshir, and H. Karami, “Experimental research on sacrificial spur dikes to reduce scouring,” Proc. of the 36th IAHR World Congress, The Hague, the Netherlands, 2015.
 Jr.F.D. Shields, and R.T. Milhous, “Sediment and aquatic habitat in river systems,” ASCE Task Committee on Sediment Transport and Aquatic Habitats, Sedimentation Committee. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE. 118(5), 1992, 669-687.
 P.M. Biron, C. Robson, M.F. Lapointe, and S.G. Gaskin, Deflector designs for fish habitat restoration, Environmental Management. 33(1), 2004, 25-35.
 P. Kemp, D. Sear, A. Collins, P. Naden, and I. Jones, “The impacts of fine sediment on riverine fish,” Hydrological Processes. 25, 2011, 1800-1821.
 A. Kadota, E. Kojima, and K. Suzuki, “Mean and coherent structures caused by several types of groin,” Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, JSCE. 54, 2010, 937-942.
 M.N. Uddin, and M.M. Rahman, “Socio-Economic Impact of Erosion along the Right Bank of the Jamuna River in Bangladesh,” DUET Journal,1(2), 2011, 35-42.