Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32601
Ways to Define the Most Sustainable Actions for Water Shortage Prevention in Mega Cities, Especially in Developing Countries

Authors: Keivan Karimlou, Nemat Hassani, Abdollah Rashidi Mehrabadi


Climate change, industrial bloom, population growth and mismanagement are the most important factors that lead to water shortages around the world. Water shortages often lead to forced immigration, war, and thirst and hunger, especially in developing countries. One of the simplest solutions to solve the water shortage issues around the world is transferring water from one watershed to another; however it may not be a suitable solution. Water managers around the world use supply and demand management methods to decrease the incidence of water shortage in a sustainable manner. But as a matter of economic constraints, they must define a method to select the best possible action to reduce and limit water shortages. The following paper recognizes different kinds of criteria to select the best possible policy for reducing water shortage in mega cities by examining a comprehensive literature review.

Keywords: Criteria, management, shortage, sustainable, water.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 921


[1] Zarghami. M, Abrishamchi. A, Ardakanian. R. (2007) Multi-Criteria Decision making for Integrated Urban Water management, Water Resource management, (2008) 22:1017–1029, DOI 10.1007/s11269-007-9207-7
[2] WHO/UNICEF (2010), Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water, WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. ISBN 978 92 4 156395 6
[3] Baadsgaard. J (Ed.) & Klee. P ( C.), 2013, Meeting an increasing demand for water by reducing urban water loss, Reducing Non-Revenue Water in water distribution, The rethink Water Network & Danish Water Forum 2013
[4] Water resources group (2009) charting our water future, Economic framework to inform decision making
[5] Dimakisa. P, Trogadas. G, Arampatzisa and Assimacopoulos, D 2008, Cost Effectiveness Analysis for Renewable Energy Sources Integration in the Island of Lemnos, Greece, International Congress on Environmental Modeling and Software Integrating Sciences and Information Technology for Environmental Assessment and Decision Making
[6] Tajrishi, Masoud, Abrishamchi Ahmad, 1384, Demand management of water resources in Iran, first conference in mitigating the destruction of national resources.
[7] Saemian, S. (2010) Adaptation Strategies To Impacts Of Climate Change And Variability On Tehran Water Supply In 2021: An Application Of A Decision Support System (Dss) To Compare Adaptation Strategies, Master Thesis In Sustainable Development, Uppsala University
[8] Schreiner, B., Pegram, G., von der Heyden, C., and Eaglin, F. 2010. Opportunities and constraints to development of water resources infrastructure investment in Sub-Saharan Africa
[9] Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development- FMECD-(2010) Managing non-revenue water, non-revenue water sourcebook for trainers WAVE program, Germany.
[10] American Water Works Association(AWWA) (2014) Benchmarking: Performance Indicators for Water and Wastewater Utilities: Survey Data and Analyses Report, ISBN: 9781583219980
[11] -Stratus Consulting, Inc. 1998. Infrastructure Needs for the Public Water Supply Sector. Report prepared for AWWA Government Affairs. Boulder, CO
[12] Portland water bureau (PWB) (2010), Guidelines for how to develop an Asset Management Plan.
[13] Romer, A. E., G. E. C. Bell, D. Ellison, and B. Clark. 2008. Failure of Pre-Stressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe. AWWA Research Foundation, Denver, CO
[14] Wyatt, A. (2010). Non-Revenue Water: Financial Model for Optimal Management in Developing Countries. RTI Press Publication No. MR-0018-1006. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International.
[15] Liemberger. R. (2008) the non –revenue water challenge in low and middle income countries, water21 magazine, pp 48-52.
[16] -National Audit Department(2011) Non revenue Water, Audit guidelines, Malaysia
[17] Beato. P. and Vives. A. (2008) A Primer on Water Economics and Financing for Developing Countries, EXPO 2008, Zaragoza.
[18] Ramakrishnaiah, C. R., 2014; Urban Water Management: Best Practice Cases, scientific research journal,, accessed on 25/01/2017
[19] Gleick, P. H., Haasz, D., Henges-Jeck, C., Srinivasan, V., Wolf, G., Kao Cushing, K., Manm, A., 2003, Waste not, Want not: the potential for Urban Water Conservation in California, Pacific Institute.
[20] Vickers, A. L. 1999. “The future of water conservation: challenges ahead.” Water Resources Update. Vol. 114, pp. 49–51.
[21] Sauri, D.,2013, Water Conservation:theory abd Evidence in Urban Areas of Developed World, This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-013113-142651
[22] March H., Dom`enech L., Sauri D., 2013. Water conservation campaigns and citizen perceptions: the drought of 2007–2008 in the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Nat. Hazards 65(3):1951–66
[23] Sharifzade Soofiani, Ebrahim, 1386, pressure management in urban Water Distribution networks (Case study: a network in northern Tehran), Msc thesis, Power and Water University of Technology(PWUT)
[24] Shahram Rad Pejman, 1390, evaluation of effects of pressure management and Decreasing Consumption instruments on water consumption management, Msc Thesis, Power and Water University of Technology (PWUT).
[25] A & N Technical Services, Inc., 2005, BMP Costs & Savings Study A Guide to Data and Methods for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Urban Water Conservation Best Management Practices Prepared for The California Urban Water Conservation Council
[26] -Lalonde, A. 2004, “Use of Flow Modulated Pressure Management in York Region, Ontario to Reduce Distribution System Leakage,” AWWA Water Resources Conference Proceedings.
[27] -Bishop, W. J., and J. A. Weber (1995), “Impacts of Metering: A Case Study at Denver Water,” prepared for the 20th Congress IWSA, Durban, South Africa.
[28] Lovett, D. (1992), “Water Conservation Through Universal Metering,” 44th Annual Convention of the Western Canada Water and Wastewater Association Proceedings
[29] Koch, R. N. and R. F. Oulton (1990), “Submetering: Conservation’s Unexplored Potential,” AWWA Conference Proceedings
[30] CUWCC 2003, “ET and Weather-Based Irrigation Controllers Workshop: Product Information,” California Urban Water Conservation Council, March. URL:, accessed on 25/01/2017
[31] Maddaus, L. A.,2001, “Effects Of Metering On Residential Water Demand for Davis California,” Master’s Degree Project for the Civil & Environmental Engineering Department, University Of California, Davis..
[32] Brown and Caldwell (1984) “The HUD Study,” Residential Water Conservation Projects, Summary Report, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
[33] Rosales, J., C. Weiss, and W. DeOreo,2002, “The Impacts of Submetering on Water Usage at Two Mobile Home Communities in Las Vegas, Nevada,” Water Sources Conference Proceedings
[34] Griffin, W., 2001, “Utility Billing Programs Can Lower Housing Costs,” National Submetering & Utility Allocation Association Forum
[35] Industrial Economics Inc., 1999, “Sub metering, RUBS, and Water Conservation,” for National Apartment Association and National Multi Housing Council.
[36] Aquacraft 2004, found, in a national study, that sub metering saved 15.3%, or equivalently 21.8 gallons per unit per day
[37] Chesnutt, T., C. McSpadden, and D. Pekelney (1995), “What is the Reliable Yield from Residential Home Water Survey Programs?” presented at the AWWA Conference in Anaheim CA
[38] Chesnutt, T. W. and C. N. McSpadden, 1991, The Evaluation of Water Conservation Programs: What is Wrong with the Industry Standard Approach?, A report for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.
[39] California Department of Water Resources (CDWR). 2003. Water Recycling 2030: Recommendations of California’s Recycled Water Task Force. June 2003. Sacramento, California
[40] -Howe, C. W, 1971, saving recommendation with regard to water system losses, journal of American Water Works Association, 63.
[41] Turner, A., S. White, K. Beatty, and A. Gregory (2004), Results of the largest residential demand management program in Australia, report, Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia
[42] fielding, K. S; Russell S, Spinks A, Mankad A, 2012; Determinants of household water conservation: the role of demographic, infrastructure, behavior and psychosocial variables, Water resource research, VOL 48, DOI :10.1029/2012WR012398
[43] Schultz, M. T., S. M. Cavanagh (Olmstead), B. Gu, and D. J. Eaton (1997), The Consequences of Water Consumption Restrictions during the Corpus Christi Drought of 1996, draft report, LBJ School of Public Affairs, University of Texas, Austin.
[44] -olmstead, S M; Stavins R N. 2008; comparing price and non price approaches to urban water conservation, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
[45] Jezler, Harold,1975, when the reservoir almost went dry, journal of American water works association 67: 159-162
[46] Washington suburban sanitary commission, 1977, Final and comprehensive report cabin john drainage basin water – saving, Customer Education and Appliance test program, Hayattsville, Md
[47] Bollman, Frank H. and Melinda A. Merritt, 1977, " Community response and change in residential water use to conservation and rationing measures: a case study Marin municipality water district. Presented at the fall conference of the AWWA, San Jose, CA.
[48] National Water Council (Great Britain) 1977, the 1975- 1976 drought. London.
[49] Larkin, Donald G,1978, The economics of water conservation, Journal of the American water works association70, no 9
[50] Robie, Ronald B.,1978, California'sd Program for Dealing with drought, Journal of American Water works Association70
[51] Whitney. A, Bennet. R, Carvajal.C, Prillwitz. M, 1999, “Monitoring Gray Water Use: Three Case Studies in California,” (undated, assume 1999).
[52] Seattle Public Utilities Commission (SPUC). 1998. Water Conservation Potential Assessment, Final project report., Accessed on 25/01/2015
[53] Seattle Public Utilities Commission (SPUC). 1999. Water Conservation Potential Assessment.,accessed on 25/1/2017
[54] Mclaughlin, Everett,1975, A recycle system for conservation of water in residences, in proceeding- Conference on water conservation and sewage flow reduction with water saving devices, pp 133-142. Edited by W.E Sharpe and P.W. Fietcher. Institute for research on land and water resources. Pennsylvania state university, information report no. 74.
[55] Grima, A, P., 1985, Urban water conservation, Geo Journal 11.3 257-263,Ontarion, Canada.
[56] Cahill, R and Lund, J.; 2012, Residential Water Conservation in Australia and California; Water Resources Planning and management; doi:10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000225
[57] DeOreo. W, Mayer. P, Martien. L, Hayden. M, Funk. A, Kramer. M, Davis. R, 2011, “California Single-Family Water Use Efficiency Study”, Aquacraft Inc., Boulder, CO.
[58] Loh, M and Coghan, P. (2003)," Domestic Water use study in Perth, Western Australia 1998-2001, Water Corporation
[59] Roberts, P. (2005), “2004 Residential End Use Measurement Study”, Yarra Valley Water, Sacramento Department of Utilities (2011), 2010 Urban Water Management Plan, City of Sacramento.
[60] Willis, R., Stewart. R., Panuwatwanich. K., Giuro. D., 2009, “Gold Coast Domestic Water End Use Study”, Water Journal of the Australian Water Association, Vol. 36(6), pp. 79-85.
[61] Baumann, D., Boland, J., Sims, J., Kranzer, B., Carcer, P., 1979, the role of conservation in water supply planning, institute for water resources, National Technical Information Service, U.S Department of Commerce Springfield, Virginia.
[62] Aquacraft, Inc.,1999, “Residential End Uses of Water,” prepared for American Water Works Research Foundation.
[63] Aquacraft, Inc.2000, “Seattle Home Water Conservation Study,” prepared for Seattle Public Utilities and the U.S. EPA, December 2000.
[64] Aquacraft, Inc.,2003, “Residential Indoor Water Conservation Study,” prepared for the East Bay Municipal Utilities District and the U.S. EPA
[65] -Pugh, C. A., and J. J. Tomlinson, "High-Efficiency Washing Machine Demonstration, Bern, Kansas,", 1999
[66] Hagler Bailly Services (1997), The CII ULFT Savings Study, sponsored by the California Urban Water Conservation Council
[67] Mayer, P. W., W. B. DeOreo, E. M. Opitz, J. C. Kiefer, W. Y. Davis, B. Dziegielewski, and J. O. Nelson. 1999. Residential End Uses of Water. Final Report. AWWA Research Foundation. Denver, Colorado.
[68] Nelson. J. O., 1977, North Marin's Little Compendium of water saving Ideas. Marin County, CA: North marin County water District
[69] Cohen, Sheldon and Harold Wallman, 1974, Demonstration of waste flow reduction from households. Groton, CT: General Dynamics, September, U.S EPA- 670/2-74-071, Environmental protection Technology series.
[70] -Kurunthachalam S. K. (2014), Water Conservation and Sustainability: An Utmost Importance. Hydrol Current Res 5: e117. doi:10.4172/2157- 7587.1000e117
[71] Sharpe, W. E., 1981, Water Conservation Devices for New or Existing Dwellings. J. Am. Water Works Association.
[72] Aher, A., A. Chouthai, L. Chandrasekar, W. Corpening, L. Russ, and B. Vijapur (1991), East Bay Municipal Utility District Water Conservation Study, Stevens Institute of Technology, Oakland, CA.
[73] Koeller, J., “Dual-Flush Toilet Fixtures—Field Studies and Water Savings,” December 2003
[74] Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1998) “Bern Clothes Washer Study: Final Report,” prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy
[75] Consortium for Energy Efficiency High Efficiency Clothes Washer Initiative, CEE (1995), “Program Description” with Appendices
[76] -Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL),2001, “The Save Water and Energy Education Program: SWEEP: Water and Energy Savings Evaluation,” prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy.
[77] Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 2003, “The Boston Washer Study,” prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy.
[78] Koomey, J., C. Atkinson, A. Meier, J. E. McMahon, S. Boghosian, J. G. Koomey, C. Dunham, and J. D. Lutz. 1995 “The effect of efficiency standards on water use and water heating energy use in the U.S.: A detailed end-use treatment.” Energy-The International Journal. Vol. 20, no7, p. 627.
[79] Santa Clara Valley Water District, 2002, “Hot Water Re-Circulation Pilot Study,” Stranz, Blake (1996), “Hot Shot: Innovative Hot Water System Saves Money, Energy and Time".
[80] California Department of Water Resources (CDWR). 1998, California Water Plan Update. DWR Bulletin 160-98, California.
[81] IRWD (2001), “Residential Weather-Based Irrigation Scheduling: Evidence from the Irvine “ET Controller” Study,” Irvine Ranch Water District, the Municipal Water District of Orange County, and the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.
[82] Aqua Conserve (2002), “Residential Landscape Irrigation Study using Aqua ET Controllers,”Information from the CUWCC ET and Weather-Based Irrigation Controllers Workshop, March 2003. URL:, accessed on 25/01/2017
[83] Bamezai, A. (1996), “Do Centrally Controlled Irrigation Systems Use Less Water? The Aliso Viejo Experience,” prepared for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
[84] Wong, A. K. 1999. “Promoting conservation with Irvine Ranch Water District’s ascending block rate structure.” In Owens-Viani, L., A. K. Wong, and P. H. Gleick (editors). 1999. Sustainable Uses of Water: California Success Stories. Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. Oakland, California. pp. 27-35.
[85] Hunt, T., D. Lessick, J. Berg, J. Weidman, T. Ash, D. Pagano, M. Marian, and A. Bamezai. 2001.
[86] Inman D, Jeffrey P. 2006.A review of residential water conservation tool performance and influences on implementation effectiveness. Urban Water J. 3:127–43
[87] Mayer, P. W., W. B. DeOreo, E. Towler, and L. Martien (2004), Tampa Water Department residential water conservation study: The impacts of high efficiency plumbing fixture retrofits in single-family homes, report, 211
[88] Queensland Water Commission (2010), South East Queensland water strategy, report, Brisbane, Queensl., Australia
[89] Domene E., Saur´ı D., Mart´ı X., Molina J., Huelin S.. 2004. Typologies of housing and water consumption in the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona. 4th Congress. of Management and Planning of l'Aigua Tortosa, Spain.
[90] Nasrabadi, T.,Vaghefi, H. R. S., Hoveidi H., Jafari, H. R., (2008) Role of water-saving devices in reducing urban water consumption in the mega-city of Tehran, case study: A Residential Complex, Journal of Environmental Health
[91] Fattahi.S., Fayyaz.S. (2009), compromise Programming Model to Integrated Urban Water Management, Water Resource Management Journal, 24:1211–1227, DOI 10.1007/s11269-009-9492-4
[92] Abrishamchi. A., Ebrahimian. A., Tajrishi. M., Marino. M. (2005) Case Study: Application of Multi criteria Decision making to Urban Water Supply, Journal of Water Resource planning and management, DOI: 10.1061/~ASCE!0733-9496~2005!131:4~326
[93] E. Lai, S. Lundie & N. J. Ashbolt (2016) Review of multi-criteria decision aid for integrated sustainability assessment of urban water systems, Urban Water Journal, 5:4,315-327, DOI: 10.1080/15730620802041038
[94] Hajkowicz, S. and Collins, K., 2007. A review of multiple criteria analysis for water resource planning and management. Water Resource Management, 21 (9), 1553–1566.
[95] Bender M. J., Simonovic S. P. (2000) a fuzzy compromise approaches to water resource systems planning under uncertainty. Fuzzy Sets System 115:35–44. doi:10.1016/S0165-0114(99)00025-1.
[96] Abrishamchi, A., and Tajrishi, M (1997) Multi criteria decision making in irrigation planning.” Proc., 4th Int. Conf. on Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, 79–88
[97] Simonovic, S. (1989) “Application of water resources systems concept to the formulation of a water master plan.” Water Int., 14, 37–50.
[98] National Water Commission (NWC) and Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) ,2011, “National Performance Report 2009-2010: Urban Water Utilities”.
[99] Shawwash, Z. and Russel, D., (1994), Use of System Dynamics for managing Water in Jordan, Dept. of Civil Engineering, the University of British Colombia, Canada.
[100] Stave, K., (2003), A System Dynamic model to facilitate public understanding of water management options in Las Vegas, Nevada, Journal of Environmental management, 67.
[101] Safavitabar, A., 1385, dynamic system modeling in urban water management of Tehran, water and wastewater journal, 59