Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution (RESS) Carbon Dioxide as an Environmental Friendly Method for Ginger Rhizome Solid Oil Particles Formation
Recently, RESS (Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution) method has been used by researchers to produce fine particles for pharmaceutical drug substances. Since RESS technology acknowledges a lot of benefits compare to conventional method of ginger extraction, it is suggested to use this method to explore particle formation of bioactive compound from powder ginger. The objective of this research is to produce direct solid oil particles formation from ginger rhizome which contains valuable compounds by using RESS-CO2 process. RESS experiments were carried using extraction pressure of 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000psi and at different extraction temperature of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70°C for 40 minutes extraction time and contant flowrate (24ml/min). From the studies conducted, it was found that at extraction pressure 5000psi and temperature 40°C, the smallest particle size obtained was 2.22μm on 99 % reduction from the original size of 370μm.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130939Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 796
 Y. Shukla and M. Singh, “Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review.,” Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 683–90, May 2007.
 S. Atashak, M. Peeri, M. A. Azarbayjani, and S. R. Stannard, “Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men,” J. Exerc. Sci. Fit., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 26–30, Jun. 2014.
 V. Manju and N. Nalini, “Chemopreventive efficacy of ginger, a naturally occurring anticarcinogen during the initiation, post-initiation stages of 1,2 dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer.,” Clin. Chim. Acta., vol. 358, no. 1–2, pp. 60–67, Aug. 2005.
 R. Ramakrishnan, “Anticancer properties of Zingiber officinale–ginger: a review,” Int. J., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 11–20, 2013.
 S. K. Katiyar, R. Agarwal, and H. Mukhtar, “Inhibition of Tumor Promotion in SENCAR Mouse Skin by Ethanol Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizome Inhibition of Tumor Promotion,” Cancer Res., pp. 1023–1030, 1996.
 H. Chen, C. Chung, H. Wang, and T. Huang, “Application of Taguchi Method to Optimize Extracted Ginger Oil in Different Drying Conditions,” Int. Conf. Food Eng. Biotechnol., vol. 9, pp. 310–316, 2011.
 J. Jung and M. Perrut, “Particle design using supercritical fluids: Literature and patent survey,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 179–219, Aug. 2001.
 R. Ghaderi, “A Supercritical Fluids Extraction Process for the Production of Drug Loaded Biodegradable Microparticles,” 2000.
 C. Puengphian and A. Sirichote, “
-gingerol content and bioactive properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extracts from supercritical CO2 extraction,” Asian J. Food Agro-Industry, vol. 1, no. 01, pp. 29–36, 2008.
 S. V Nampoothiri, V. Venugopalan, B. Joy, M. Sreekumar, and a N. Menon, “Comparison of Essential oil Composition of Three Ginger Cultivars from Sub Himalayan Region,” Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. S1347–S1350, Jan. 2012.
 S. W. Lin, T. T. Sue, and T. Y. Ai, Methods of Test For Palm Oil and Palm Oil Products, Volume 1. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, 1995.
 S. R. M. Moreschi, J. C. Leal, M. E. M. Braga, and M. A. A. Meireles, “Ginger And Turmeric Starches Hydrolysis Using Subcritical Water + Co 2 : The Effect Of The Sfe Pre-Treatment,” Brazilian J. Chem. Eng., vol. 23, no. 02, pp. 235–242, 2006.
 D. Bolten and M. Türk, “Micronisation of carbamazepine through rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS),” J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 62, pp. 32–40, Feb. 2012.
 A. Z. Hezave and F. Esmaeilzadeh, “The effects of RESS parameters on the diclofenac particle size,” Adv. Powder Technol., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 587–595, Sep. 2011.
 M. C. Mesomo, M. L. Corazza, P. M. Ndiaye, O. R. Dalla Santa, L. Cardozo, and A. D. P. Scheer, “Supercritical CO2 extracts and essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.): Chemical composition and antibacterial activity,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 44–49, Aug. 2013.
 J. Azmir, I. S. M. Zaidul, M. M. Rahman, K. M. Sharif, a. Mohamed, F. Sahena, M. H. a. Jahurul, K. Ghafoor, N. a. N. Norulaini, and a. K. M. Omar, “Techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials: A review,” J. Food Eng., vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 426–436, Aug. 2013.
 M. Herrero, J. a Mendiola, A. Cifuentes, and E. Ibáñez, “Supercritical fluid extraction: Recent advances and applications.,” J. Chromatogr. A, vol. 1217, no. 16, pp. 2495–511, Apr. 2010.
 Z. Huang, G.-B. Sun, Y. C. Chiew, and S. Kawi, “Formation of ultrafine aspirin particles through rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS),” Powder Technol., vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 127–134, Dec. 2005.
 A. Keshavarz, J. Karimi-Sabet, A. Fattahi, A. Golzary, M. Rafiee-Tehrani, and F. a. Dorkoosh, “Preparation and characterization of raloxifene nanoparticles using Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS),” J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 63, pp. 169–179, Mar. 2012.
 S. Hiendrawan, B. Veriansyah, and R. R. Tjandrawinata, “Micronization of fenofibrate by rapid expansion of supercritical solution,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 54–60, Jan. 2014.
 N. Yildiz, Ş. Tuna, O. Döker, and A. Çalimli, “Micronization of salicylic acid and taxol (paclitaxel) by rapid expansion of supercritical fluids (RESS),” J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 440–451, Jul. 2007.
 A. Z. Hezave, S. Aftab, and F. Esmaeilzadeh, “Micronization of creatine monohydrate via Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS),” J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 316–324, Nov. 2010.
 D. Kayrak, U. Akman, and Ö. Hortaçsu, “Micronization of Ibuprofen by RESS,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 17–31, May 2003.
 H. Baseri and M. N. Lotfollahi, “Formation of gemfibrozil with narrow particle size distribution via rapid expansion of supercritical solution process (RESS),” Powder Technol., vol. 235, pp. 677–684, Feb. 2013.