Characterization and Optimization of Culture Conditions for Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria after Isolation from Rhizospheric Mustard Soil, Decomposing Sites and Pit House
Sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have marked their significant role in perspectives of maintaining healthy environment as researchers from all over the world tested and apply these in waste water treatment plants, bioleaching of heavy metals, deterioration of bridge structures, concrete and for bioremediation purposes, etc. Also, these SOB are well adapted in all kinds of environment ranging from normal soil, water habitats to extreme natural sources like geothermal areas, volcanic eruptions, black shale and acid rock drainage (ARD). SOB have been isolated from low pH environment of anthropogenic origin like acid mine drainage (AMD) and bioleaching heaps, hence these can work efficiently in different environmental conditions. Besides having many applications in field of environment science, they may be proven to be very beneficial in area of agriculture as sulphur is the fourth major macronutrients required for the growth of plants. More amount of sulphur is needed by pulses and oilseed crops with respect to the cereal grains. Due to continuous use of land for overproduction of more demanding sulphur utilizing crops and without application of sulphur fertilizers, its concentration is decreasing day by day, and thus, sulphur deficiency is becoming a great problem as it affects the crop productivity and quality. Sulphur is generally found in soils in many forms which are unavailable for plants (cannot be use by plants) like elemental sulphur, thiosulphate which can be taken up by bacteria and converted into simpler forms usable by plants by undergoing a series of transformations. So, keeping the importance of sulphur in view for various soil types, oilseed crops and role of microorganisms in making them available to plants, we made an effort to isolate, optimize, and characterize SOB. Three potential strains of bacteria were isolated, namely SSF7, SSA21, and SSS6, showing sulphate production of concentration, i.e. 2.268, 3.102, and 2.785 mM, respectively. Also, these were optimized for various culture conditions like carbon, nitrogen source, pH, temperature, and incubation time, and characterization was also done.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130743Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 928
 H. L. S. Tandon, and D. L. Messick, “Practical Sulphur Guide Book,” The Sulphur Institute, Washington, Dc. 2002.
 K. Mengel, and E. A. Kirkby, “Principles of Plant Nutrition,” 4th ed. International Potash Institute, IPI, Bern, Switzerland, 1987, p. 685.
 A. Jamal, Y. S. Moon, and M. Z. Abdin, “Sulphur -a general overview and interaction with nitrogen,” Australian Journal of Crop Science, vol. 4(7), pp. 523-529, 2010.
 A. Jamal, I. S. Fazli, S. Ahmad, M. Z. Abdin, and S. J. Yun, “Effect of sulphur and nitrogen application on growth characteristics, seed and oil yield of soybean cultivars,” Korean Journal of Crop Science, vol. 50(5), pp. 340-345, 2005.
 A. Jamal, I. S. Fazli, S. Ahmad, and M. Z. Abdin, “Interactive effect of nitrogen and sulphur on yield and quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.),” Korean Journal of Crop Science, vol. 51(6), pp. 519-522, 2006.
 A. Jamal, I. S. Fazli, S. Ahmad, K. T. Kim, D. G. Oh, and M. Z. Abdin, “Effect of sulfur on nitrate reductase and ATP sulfurylase activities in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.),” Journal of Plant Biology, vol. 49(6), pp. 513-517, 2006.
 A. Jamal, I. S. Fazli, S. Ahmad, M. Z. Abdin, and S. J. Yun, “Effect of nitrogen and sulphur application on nitrate reductase and ATP- sulphurylase activities in Soybean,” Korean Journal of Crop Science, vol. 51(4), pp. 298-302, 2006.
 A. Jamal, K. Ko, H. S. Kim, Y. K. Cho, H. Joung, and K. Ko, “Role of genetic factors and environmental conditions in recombinant protein production for plant molecular biopharming,” Biotechnological Advancement, vol. 27, pp. 914-923, 2009.
 A. Jamal, Y. S. Moon, and M. Z. Abdin, “Enzyme activity assessment of peanut (Arachis hypogea) under slow-release sulphur fertilization,” Australian Journal of Crop Science, vol. 4(3), pp.169-174, 2010.
 N. S. Pasricha, and R. L. Fox, “Plant Nutrition sulphur in the tropics and subtropics,” Advances in Agronomy 50, pp. 209-269, 1993.
 M. V. Singh, Importance of sulfur in balanced fertilizer use in India,” Fertilizer News, vol. 46, 2001, pp. 55-58.
 J. L Katyal, K. L. Sharma, and K. Srinivas, on “Sulphur in balanced fertilization, 13-14 Feb in 1997, ISI/FAI/IFA Symp. New Delhi, India, Proc., pp. 2/1-2/11.
 R. Vidhyalakshmi, and R. Sridar, “Isolation and Characterization of Heterotrophic Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria,” Journal of Culture Collections vol. 5, pp. 73-77, 2006.
 W. Sajjad, T. M. Bhatti, F. Hasan, S. Khan, M. Badshah, A. A. Naseem and A. A. Shah, “Characterization of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from acid mine drainage and black shale Samples,” Pakistan Journal. Of Botany, vol. 48(3), pp. 1253-1262, 2016.
 S. Vupputuri, Z. F. Babu, G. G. Wilber, E. Sudoi, S. Nasrazadani, M. T. Ley, J. D. Ramsey, “Isolation of a sulfur-oxidizing Streptomyces sp. from deteriorating bridge structures and its role in concrete deterioration, ”International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 97, 2015 pp. 128-134, 2015.
 R. L. Starkey, and V. G. Collins, “Autotrophs. In:,” Methods in Microbiology, J. R. Norris, and D. W Ribbons (Eds), Academic Press, New York, vol. 38, pp. 55-73, 1923.
 S. K. Das, A. K. Mishra, B. J. Tilndal, F. A. Rainey, and E. Stackebrandt, “Oxidation of Thiosulfate by a New Bacterium, Bosea thiooxidans (strain BI-42) gen. nov., sp. nov.: Analysis of Phylogeny Based on Chemotaxonomy and 16s Ribosomal DNA Sequencing,” International Journal of Systematic bacteriologoy, vol. 46(4), pp. 981-987, 1996.
 S. Vidhyasri, and R. Sridar, “Isolation and Characterization of Heterotrophic Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria from Different Ecological Niches,” Advances in Applied Research, vol. 3, pp. 127–13, 2011.
 N. S. Vardanyan, and A. K. Vardanyan, New sulphur oxidizing bacteria isolated from bioleaching pulp of zinc and copper concentrates. Universal Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 2(2), pp. 27-31, 2014.
 B. C. Behera, M. Patra, S. K. Dutta, and H. N. Thatoi, “Isolation and characterization of sulphur oxidising bacteria from Mangrove soil of Mahanadi River delta and their sulphur oxidising ability,” Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 2(1), pp. 1-5, 2014.
 E. Y. Lee, K. S. Cho, and H. W. Ryu, “Characterization of sulphur oxidation by an autotrophic sulphur oxidizer, Thiobacillus sp. ASWW-2,” Bioprocess Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 48-52, 2000.
 Z. Z. M. M. Salleeh, N. S. B. Ashaari, and M. Aziz, “Isolation of bacteria in effective microorganisms (EM) suitable for degradation of thiosulphate,” University Technology. Malaysia. (Anonymous).
 J. G. Holt, N. R. Krieg, P. H. A. Sneath, J. T. Staley, and S. T. Williams, “Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology,” 9th ed. Maryland, U.S.A., Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA, USA, 1994.