Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants
Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa
Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1129161Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 587
 Davud Mostafa Tobnaghi, "A Review on Impacts of Grid-Connected PV System on Distribution Networks," International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 137-142, 2016.
 Farid Katiraei, Konrad Mauch, and Lisa Dignard-Bailey, "Integration of Photovoltaic Power Systems in High-penetration Clusters for Distribution Networks and Mini-Grid," International Journal of Distributed Energy Resources, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 207-223, 2007.
 Mohamed A. Eltawil and Zhengming Zhao, "Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: Technical and potential problems—A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews/Elsevier, vol. 14, pp. 112-129, 2010.
 A. von Jouanne and B. Banerjee, "Assessment of Voltage Unbalance," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 782-790, 2001.
 Carol S. Cheng and Dariush Shirmohammadi, "A three-phase power flow method for real-time distribution system analysis," IEEE Trans. on Power System, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 671-679, 1995.
 P. A. N. Garcia, J. L. R. Pereira, S. Carneiro, V. M. da Costa, and N. Martins, "Three-phase power flow calculations using the current injection method," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 508 - 514, 2000.
 L.R. Araujo, D. R. R. Penido, S. Carneiro, and J. L. R. Pereira, "A three-phase optimal power flow algorithm to mitigate voltage unbalance," IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 2394-2402, 2013.
 Sergio Bruno, Silvia Lamonaca, Ugo Stecchi, and Massimo La Scala, "Unbalanced three-phase optimal power flow for smart grids," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 4504-4513, 2011.
 Sumit Paudyal, Claudio A. Cañizares, and Kankar Bhattacharya, "Optimal operation of distribution feeders in smart grids," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 4495 - 4503, 2011.
 Emiliano Dall'Anese, Hao Zhu, and Georgios B. Giannakis, "Distributed optimal power flow for smart microgrids," IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1464-1475, 2013.
 Leandro Ramos de Araujo, Débora Rosana Ribeiro Penido, and Felipe de Alcântara Vieira, "A multiphase optimal power flow algorithm for unbalanced distribution systems," Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Elsevier, vol. 53, pp. 632-642, 2013.
 Antonio R. Baran and Thelma S.P. Fernandes, "A three-phase optimal power ﬂow applied to the planning of unbalanced distribution networks," Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Elsevier, vol. 74, pp. 301-309, 2016.
 Jie Wei, Leslie Corson, and Anurag K Srivastava, "Three-Phase Optimal Power Flow Based Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing and Associated Price Stability," in 2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2015, pp. 1-5.
 Mohammad Chehreghani Bozchalui, Chenrui Jin, and Ratnesh Sharma, "Rolling Stochastic Optimization based operation of distribution systems with PVs and Energy Storages," in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), 2014 IEEE PES, 2014, pp. 1 - 5.
 Yann Riffonneau, Seddik Bacha, Franck Barruel, and Stephane Ploix, "Optimal Power Flow Management for Grid Connected PV Systems with Batteries," IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 309-320, 2011.
 W. De Soto, S.A. Klein, and W.A. Beckman, "Improvement and validation of a model for photovoltaic array performance," Solar Energy, Elsevier, vol. 80, pp. 78-88, 2006.
 Marcelo Gradella Villalva, Jonas Rafael Gazoli, and Ernesto Ruppert Filho, "Comprehensive approach to modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays," IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, pp. 1198-1208, 2009.
 Wang Yi-Bo, Wu Cuhn-Sheng, Liao Hua, and Xu Hong-Hua, "Steady-state model and power flow analysis of grid connected photovoltaic power system," in IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Chengdu, 2008, pp. 1-6.
 Junior Edemilson Luiz Rangel, "Modelagem de Centrais Fotovoltaicas no Problema de Fluxo de Potência Ótimo," Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2015.
 Malinwo E. Ayikpa, Katia C. Almeida, and Guilherme C. Danielski, "Three-Phase Optimal Power Flow for Study of PV Plant Distributed Impact on Distribution Systems ," David Publishing Journal of Electrical Engineering , pp. 47-56, 2017.
 Alcir José Monticelli, Fluxo de Carga em Redes de Energia Elétrica: Edgard Blücher Ltda, 1983.
 S.-C Fang and S. Puthempura, Linear Optimization and Extensions: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
 IEEE. (2013, April) IEEE Test Feeders. (Online). http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/dsacom/testfeeders/index.html