Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32146
The Effect of Air Entraining Agents on Compressive Strength

Authors: Demet Yavuz


Freeze-thaw cycles are one of the greatest threats to concrete durability. Lately, protection against this threat excites scientists’ attention. Air-entraining admixtures have been widely used to produce freeze-thaw resistant at concretes. The use of air-entraining agents (AEAs) enhances not only freeze-thaw endurance but also the properties of fresh concrete such as segregation, bleeding and flow ability. This paper examines the effects of air-entraining on compressive strength of concrete. Air-entraining is used between 0.05% and 0.4% by weight of cement. One control and four fiber reinforced concrete mixes are prepared and three specimens are tested for each mix. It is concluded from the test results that when air entraining is increased the compressive strength of concrete reduces for all mixes with AEAs.

Keywords: Concrete, air-entraining, compressive strength, mechanical properties.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1598


[1] Kosmatka, S.H., and Panarese, W.C. (1994): Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, Portland Cement Association, 13th ed., Skokie, Illinois.
[2] Cement and concrete resources, Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, EB001, PCA-fundamentals of concrete, chapter 8 pp130.
[3] Felice, R., “Frost Resistance of Modern Air Entrained Concrete Mixtures”, Thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, July 2012.
[4] Dodson, V.H. (1990): Concrete Admixtures, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
[5] Freeman, J.M., “Stability and Quality of Air Void Systems in Concretes with Superplasticizers”, Thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 2012.
[6] Jana, D., Erlin, B., Pistilli, M., “A Closer Look at Entrained Air in Concrete”, Concrete International, V27, 07, July 2005.
[7] Fagerlund, G. (1990): “Air-Pore Instability and Its Effect on Concrete Properties,” Nordic Concrete Research, No. 9, Nordic Concrete Federation, Oslo, pp. 34–52.
[8] Lianxiang Du, and Kevin J. Folliard (2005): Mechanisms of air entrainment in concrete, Cement and Concrete research 35, 1463-1471.
[9] Klieger, P., “Effect of Entrained Air on Strength and Durability of Concrete Made with Various Maximum Sizes of Aggregate”, Proceedings, Highway Research Board, Vol. 31, 1952, pp. 177-201; Bulletin No. 40, Research and Development Laboratory, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL.
[10] Ley, M. T., “The Effects of Fly Ash on the Ability to Entrain and Stabilize Air in Concrete”, Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, August 2007.
[11] TS 2941 (1978). “Determination of UnitWeight, YieldandAir Content of Fresh Concrete by Weighting Procedure”, Turkish Standard., Turkey (in Turkish). TS 3502 (1981). “Test Method of Static Modulus of Elasticity And Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete in Compression”, Turkish Standard., Turkey (in Turkish).
[12] TS 3624 (1981). “Test Method of Determination the Specific Gravity the Absorbtion Water and the Void Raito in Hardened Concrete”, Turkish Standard., Turkey (in Turkish). TS 500 (2000). “Requirements for Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete Structures”, Turkish Standard., Turkey (in Turkish).
[13] TS 5893 ISO 3893 (1999). “Concrete – Classification By Compressive Strength”, Turkish Standard., Turkey (in Turkish).
[14] TS EN 12350-2 (2002). “Testing Fresh Concrete – Part 2: Slump Test”, Turkish Standard.,Turkey (in Turkish).
[15] TS EN 12350–7 (2002). “Testing Fresh Concrete – Part 7: Air Content – Compressive Methods”, Turkish Standard.,Turkey (in Turkish).
[16] TS EN 12390–2 (2002). “Testing Hardened Concrete – Part 2: Making and Curing Specimens for Strength Tests”, Turkish Standard., Turkey (in Turkish).
[17] TS EN 12390–3 (2003). “Testing Hardened Concrete – Part 3: Compressive Strength of Test Specimens”, Turkish Standard., Turkey (in Turkish).
[18] Pigeon, M., Saucier, F., &Plante, P. (1990). “Air-Void Stability, Part iv: “Retempering”, ACI Materials Journal, 252-259.
[19] Whiting, D. and Dziedzic, W., “Behavior of Cement-Reduced and ‘Flowing’ Fresh Concretes Containing Conventional Water-Reducing and ‘Second-Generation’ High-Range Water-Reducing Admixtures,” Cement, Concrete. and Aggregates. CCAGDP, Vol. 11, No. 1, Summer 1989, pp 30-39.
[20] Nagi, M. A.,Okamoto, P. A., Kozikowski, R. L., and Hover, K. (2007): Evaluating Air-Entraining Admixture for Highway Concrete, Washington D.C.