The Effects of Different Amounts of Additional Moisture on the Physical Properties of Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Extrudates
Even though legumes possess high nutritional value and have a rather high protein content for plant origin products, they are underutilized mostly due to their lengthy cooking time. To increase the presence of legume-based products in human diet, new extruded products were made of cow peas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). But as it is known, adding different moisture content to flour before extrusion can change the physical properties of the extruded product. Experiments were carried out to estimate the optimal moisture content for cow pea extrusion. After extrusion, the pH level had dropped from 6.7 to 6.5 and the lowest hardness rate was observed in the samples with additional 9 g 100g-1 of moisture - 28±4N, but the volume mass of the samples with additional 9 g100g-1 of water was 263±3 g L-1; all samples were approximately 7±1mm long.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1128175Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 572
 R. N. Tharanathan, S. Mahadevamma, “Grain legumesda boon to human nutrition: review”, Trends in Food Science and Technology, 2003, 14, pp. 507–518.
 N. A.Shehata, N Darwish, F. E. Nahr, andF. A. A Razek, “Supplementation of wheat flour with some local legumes”,DieNahrung, 1988, 31, pp. 3–8.
 H. C. Simpson, R. S. Lousley, M Greekie, T. D. R. Hockaday, R. D. Carter and J. I. Mann, “A high carbohydrate leguminous fibre diet improves all aspects of diabetes control”, Lancet, 1981, 1, pp. 1–4.
 M. Siddiq, R. Ravi, J. B. Harte and K. D. Dolan, “Physical and functional characteristics of selected dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flours”, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2010, 43(2) pp. 232-237
 D. Betancur-Ancona, L. Chel-Guerrero,R. I. Camelo-Matos and O. Davila, “Physicochemical and functional characterization of baby Lima bean (Phaseoluslunatus)”,Starch/Starke, 2001, 53(5), pp. 219–226.
 L., Bravo, P., Siddhuraju, andF. Saura-Calixto, “Effect of various processing methods on the in vitro starch digestibility and resistant starch content of Indian pulses”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1998, 46(11), pp.4667–4674.
 O. A. Shadrach, and G. L. Oyebiodun, “The physico-functional characteristics of starches from cowpea (Vignaunguiculata), pigeon pea (Cajanuscajan) and yambean (Sphenostylisstenocarpa)”, Food Chemistry, 1999, 65, pp. 469–474.
 R. Toews, N. Wang, “Physicochemical and functional properties of protein concentrate from pulses” Food Research International, 2013, 52(2), pp. 445-451.
 M.E. Camire, M.P. Dougherty and J. L., Briggs, “Functionality of fruit powders in extruded corn breakfast cereals”, Food Chemistry2007, 101, pp. 765–770.
 C. Brennan, M. Brennan, E. Derbyshire and B.K. Tiwari, “Effects of extrusion on the polyphenols, vitamins and antioxidant activity of foods” Trends Food Science and Technology,2011, 22, pp. 570–575.
 R. Potter, V. Stojceska and A. Plunkett, “The use of fruit powders in extruded snacks suitable for Children’s diets”, LWT Food Science and Technology,2013, 51, pp. 537– 544.
 M. Hirth, A. Leiter, S. M. Beck, H. P. Schuchmann, “Effect of extrusion cooking process parameters on the retention of bilberry anthocyanins in starch based food”, Journal of Food Engineering, 2014, 125 (1), pp. 139-146
 J. Ruiz-Ruiz, A. Martínez-Ayala, S. Drago, R. González, D. Betancur-Ancona and L. Chel-Guerrero, “Extrusion of a hard-to-cook bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) flour blend”, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2008, 41, pp. 1799-1807
 L. Moscicki, “Extrusion-Cooking Techniques”, WILEY-VCH Verlag & Co. KGaA, Boschstr. 12, 69469 Weinheim, Germany, 2011, p-4.