Production and Purification of Monosaccharides by Hydrolysis of Sugar Cane Bagasse in an Ionic Liquid Medium
The conversion of lignocellulosic waste materials, such as sugar cane bagasse, to biofuels such as ethanol has attracted significant interest as a potential element for transforming transport fuel supplies to totally renewable sources. However, the refractory nature of the cellulosic structure of lignocellulosic materials has impeded progress on developing an economic process, whereby the cellulose component may be effectively broken down to glucose monosaccharides and then purified to allow downstream fermentation. Ionic liquid (IL) treatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been shown to disrupt the crystalline structure of cellulose thus potentially enabling the cellulose to be more readily hydrolysed to monosaccharides. Furthermore, conventional hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials yields byproducts that are inhibitors for efficient fermentation of the monosaccharides. However, selective extraction of monosaccharides from an aqueous/IL phase into an organic phase utilizing a combination of boronic acids and quaternary amines has shown promise as a purification process. Hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse immersed in an aqueous solution with IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) was conducted at different pH and temperature below 100 ºC. It was found that the use of a high concentration of hydrochloric acid to acidify the solution inhibited the hydrolysis of bagasse. At high pH (i.e. basic conditions), using sodium hydroxide, catalyst yields were reduced for total reducing sugars (TRS) due to the rapid degradation of the sugars formed. For purification trials, a supported liquid membrane (SLM) apparatus was constructed, whereby a synthetic solution containing xylose and glucose in an aqueous IL phase was transported across a membrane impregnated with phenyl boronic acid/Aliquat 336 to an aqueous phase. The transport rate of xylose was generally higher than that of glucose indicating that a SLM scheme may not only be useful for purifying sugars from undesirable toxic compounds, but also for fractionating sugars to improve fermentation efficiency.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1127549Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 806
 D. Kumar and G.S. Murthy, “Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production”, Biotechnol Biofuels, vol. 4, p. 27. 2011
 B.P. Lavarack, G.J. Griffin and D. Rodman, The acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose to produce xylose, arabinose, glucose and other products, Biomass Bioenerg, vol. 23, pp. 367–380, 2002
 L. Negahdar, I. Delidovich and R. Palkovits, “Aqueous-phase hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses over molecular acidic catalysts: Insights into the kinetics and reaction mechanism”. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 184, pp. 285-298, 2015.
 L. Canilha, A. K. Chandel, T. S. dos Santos Milessi, F. A. F. Antunes, W. L. da Costa Freitas, M. das Graças Almeida Felipe, and S. S. da Silva, “Bioconversion of Sugarcane Biomass into Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods, Detoxification of Hydrolysates, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Ethanol Fermentation”, Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology vol 2012, 2012, 15 pgs
 P. Oleskowicz-Popiel, D. Klein-Marcuschamer, B.A. Simmons, and H.W. Blanch, 'Lignocellulosic ethanol production without enzymes--technoeconomic analysis of ionic liquid pretreatment followed by acidolysis', Bioresour Technol, vol. 158, pp. 294-9, 2014
 S.M. Sen, J.B. Binder, R.T. Raines and C.T. Maravelias, 'Conversion of biomass to sugars via ionic liquid hydrolysis: process synthesis and economic evaluation', Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 444-52, 2012
 D. Klein-Marcuschamer, P. Oleskowicz-Popiel, B.A. Simmons and H.W. Blanch, 'The challenge of enzyme cost in the production of lignocellulosic biofuels', Biotechnol Bioeng, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 1083-7, 2012
 C. Li., Q. Wang, and Z.K. Zhao, “Acid in Ionic Liquid: An efficient system for hydrolysis of lignocellulose”. Green Chemistry, Vol 10, pp. 177-182, 2008
 I.P. Samayam., B.L. Hanson, P. Langan, and C.A. Schall, “Ionic-Liquid Induced Changes in Cellulose Structure Associated with Enhanced Biomass Hydrolysis”. Biomacromolecules, Volume 12, pp. 3091-3098, 2011.
 G.J.Griffin and L. Shu, , 'Solvent extraction and purification of sugars from hemicellulose hydrolysates using boronic acid carriers', Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 505-11,. 2004
 G.J. Griffin, 'Purification and Concentration of Xylose and Glucose from Neutralized Bagasse Hydrolysates Using 3,5-Dimethylphenylboronic Acid and Modified Aliquat 336 as Coextractants', Separation and Science Technology, vol. 40, pp. 2337-51, 2005
 P.J. Duggan, T.A. Houston, M.J. Kiefel, S.M. Levonis, B.D. Smith, and M.L.Szydzik, 'Enhanced fructose, glucose and lactose transport promoted by a lipophilic 2-(aminomethyl)-phenylboronic acid', Tetrahedron, vol. 64, no. 30-31, pp. 7122-6, 2008
 T.C.R Brennan, S. Datta,, H.W. Blanch, B.A. Simmons and B.M. Holmes, 'Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction', BioEnergy Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 123-33, 2010
 S.H. McMurray and G.J. Griffin, 'Extraction of aconitic acid from mixtures of organic acids and cane molasses solutions using supported liquid membranes', Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1262-8, 2002
 B.P. Lavarack, G.J. Griffin and D. Rodman, Measured kinetics of the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to produce xylose, Catalysis Today, vol. 63, 257–265, 2000