A Four-Year Study of Thyroid Carcinoma in Hail Region: Increased Incidence
Background and Objective: In most areas of the world, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing over the last decade, mostly due to a combination of early detection of the neoplasm resulting from sensitive procedures and increased population exposure to radiation and unrecognized carcinogens. Methods: Cases of thyroid cancer have been retrieved from the cancer registry at King Khalid Hospital during the period from August 2012 to April 2016. Age, gender and histopathologic types have been recorded. Results: Thyroid carcinoma ranked as the second most common malignancy in females (25%) after breast cancer (31%). It constituted 20.8% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases. As for males, it ranked the 4th type of malignancy after gastrointestinal cancer, lymphomas and soft tissue sarcomas. Mean age for females and males was 38.7 +/- 13.2 and 60.25 +/- 11.5 years, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p value = 0.0001). Fifty-five (82%) were papillary carcinomas including 10 follicular variant of papillary (FVPC), and eight papillary micro carcinomas (PMC) and two tall cell/oncocytic variants. Follicular carcinomas constituted two (3.1%), while two (3.1%) were anaplastic, and two (3.1%) were medullary. Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence in Hail is ranking as the 2nd most common female malignancy similar to other regions in the Kingdom. However, this high incidence contrasts with much lower rates worldwide.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1127537Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 707
 La Vecchia C, Malvezzi M, Bosetti C, Garavello W, Bertuccio P, Levi F, et al.: Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence: a global overview. Int J Cancer. 2015 May 1;136(9):2187-95).
 Katoh H, Yamashita K, Enomoto T, Watanabe M: Classification and General Considerations of Thyroid Cancer. Ann Clin Pathol 2015.3(1): 1045.
 Sinnott B, Ron E, Schneider AB. Exposing the thyroid to radiation: a review of its current extent, risks, and implications.Endocr Rev. 2010;31:756–73.
 Dal Maso L, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, et al. A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer. V. Anthropometric factors. Cancer Causes Control. 2000; 11:137–446.
 Dal Maso L, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S. Risk factors for thyroid cancer: an epidemiological review focused on nutritional factors. Cancer Causes Control. 2009; 20:75–86.
 Ismail SI, Soubani M, Nimri JM, Al-Zeer AH. Cancer incidence in Jordan from 1996 to 2009--a comprehensive study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(6):3527-34.
 Al-Zaher N, Al-Salam S, El Teraifi H.Thyroid carcinoma in the United Arab Emirates: perspectives and experience of a tertiary care hospital. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2008 Jan-Mar;1(1):14-21.
 Ahmed RA, Aboelnaga EM. Thyroid cancer in Egypt: histopathological criteria, correlation with survival and oestrogen receptor protein expression. Pathol Oncol Res. 2015 Jul;21(3):793-802.
 Ibrahim AS, Khaled HM, Mikhail NN, Baraka H, Kamel H. Cancer incidence in Egypt: Results of the National Population-based Cancer Registry Program. J Cancer Epidemiol. 2014;2014:437971.
 Raphael S, Mohammed AZ, Iliyasu Y: Histological pattern of thyroid gland neoplasms in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2015 Jan-Mar;24(1):5-11.
 Refeidi AA, Al-Shehri GY, Al-Ahmary AM, Tahtouh MI, Alsareii SA, Al-Ghamdi AG, et al.: Patterns of thyroid cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2010 Nov;31(11):1238-41.
 El Hag IA, Katchabeswaran R, Chiedozi LC, Kollur SM. Pattern and incidence of cancer in Northern Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2002 Oct;23(10):1210-3.
 Albasri A, Sawaf Z, Hussainy AS, Alhujaily A.:Histopathological patterns of thyroid disease in Al-Madinah region of Saudi Arabia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(14):5565-70.
 Hussain F, Iqbal S, Mehmood A, Bazarbashi S, ElHassan T, Chaudhri N. Incidence of thyroid cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2000-2010. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2013 Jun;6(2):58-64.
 Pearce EN, Braverman LE. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma outcomes and implications for treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug;89(8):3710-2.
 Muthalagan E1, Subashchandrabose P1, Sivasubramanian PB1, Venkateswaran S A case of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid with abundant colloid (masquerading as colloid goiter with papillar hyperplasia): Cytological evaluation with histopathological correlation. Cytol. 2015 Oct-Dec;32(4):278-280
 Abboud B, Sader Ghorra C, Rassy M, El Naderi S, Trak-Smayra V, Abadjian G et al.: Epidemiological Study of Thyroid Pathology in a University Hospital. Acta Chir Belg. 2015 Nov-Dec;115(6):414-417.