Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Fawaz Al Rashid

65 A Four-Year Study of Thyroid Carcinoma in Hail Region: Increased Incidence

Authors: Laila Seada, Hanan Oreiby, Fawaz Al Rashid, Ashraf Negm

Abstract:

Background and Objective: In most areas of the world, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing over the last decade, mostly due to a combination of early detection of the neoplasm resulting from sensitive procedures and increased population exposure to radiation and unrecognized carcinogens. Methods: Cases of thyroid cancer have been retrieved from the cancer registry at King Khalid Hospital during the period from August 2012 to April 2016. Age, gender and histopathologic types have been recorded. Results: Thyroid carcinoma ranked as the second most common malignancy in females (25%) after breast cancer (31%). It constituted 20.8% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases. As for males, it ranked the 4th type of malignancy after gastrointestinal cancer, lymphomas and soft tissue sarcomas. Mean age for females and males was 38.7 +/- 13.2 and 60.25 +/- 11.5 years, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p value = 0.0001). Fifty-five (82%) were papillary carcinomas including 10 follicular variant of papillary (FVPC), and eight papillary micro carcinomas (PMC) and two tall cell/oncocytic variants. Follicular carcinomas constituted two (3.1%), while two (3.1%) were anaplastic, and two (3.1%) were medullary. Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence in Hail is ranking as the 2nd most common female malignancy similar to other regions in the Kingdom. However, this high incidence contrasts with much lower rates worldwide.

Keywords: Thyroid, Hail, papillary, micro carcinoma.

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64 Changing Patterns of Colorectal Cancer in Hail Region

Authors: Laila Salah Seada, Ashraf Ibrahim, Fawaz Al Rashid, Ihab Abdo, Hassan Kasim, Waleed Al Mansi, Saud Al Shabli

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Colorectal carcinoma is increasing among both men and women worldwide. It has a multifactorial etiology including genetic factors, environmental factors and inflammatory conditions of the digestive tract. A clinicopathologic assessment of colorectal carcinoma in Hail region is done, considering any changing patterns in two 5-year periods from 2005-2009 (A) and from 2012 to 2017 (B). All data had been retrieved from histopathology files of King Khalid Hospital, Hail. Results: During period (A), 75 cases were diagnosed as colorectal carcinoma. Male patients comprised 56/75 (74.7%) of the study, with a mean age of 58.4 (36-97), while females were 19/75 (25.3%) with a mean age of 50.3(30-85) and the difference was significant (p = 0.05). M:F ratio was 2.9:1. Most common histological type was adenocarcioma in 68/75 (90.7%) patients mostly well differentiated in 44/68 (64.7%). Mucinous neoplasms comprised only 7/75 (9.3%) of cases and tended to have a higher stage (p = 0.04). During period (B), 115 cases were diagnosed with an increase of 53.3% in number of cases than period (A). Male to female ratio also decreased to 1.35:1, females being 44.83% more affected. Adenocarcinoma remained the prevalent type (93.9%), while mucinous type was still rare (5.2%). No distal metastases found at time of presentation. Localization of tumors was rectosigmoid in group (A) in 41.4%, which increased to 56.6% in group (B), with an increase of 15.2%. Iliocecal location also decreased from 8% to 3.5%, being 56.25% less. Other proximal areas of the colon were decreased by 25.75%, from 53.9% in group (A) to 40% in group (B). Conclusion: Colorectal carcinoma in Hail region has increased by 53.3% in the past 5 years, with more females being diagnosed. Localization has also shifted distally by 15.2%. These findings are different from Western world patterns which experienced a decrease in incidence and proximal shift of the colon cancer localization. This might be due to better diagnostic tools, population awareness of the disease, as well as changing of life style and/or food habits in the region.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer, Hail Region, changing pattern, distal shift.

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63 Some Considerations on UML Class Diagram Formalisation Approaches

Authors: Abdullah A. H. Alzahrani, Majd Zohri Yafi, Fawaz K. Alarfaj

Abstract:

Unified Modelling Language (UML) is a software modelling language that is widely used and accepted. One significant drawback, of which, is that the language lacks formality. This makes carrying out any type of rigorous analysis difficult process. Many researchers attempt to introduce their approaches to formalise UML diagrams. However, it is always hard to decide what language and/or approach to use. Therefore, in this paper, we highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of number of those approaches. We also try to compare different counterpart approaches. In addition, we draw some guidelines to help in choosing the suitable approach. Special concern is given to the formalisation of the static aspects of UML shown is class diagrams.

Keywords: UML formalisation, Object Constraints Language (OCL), Description Logic (DL), Z language.

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62 University of Jordan Case Tool (Uj-Case- Tool) for Database Reverse Engineering

Authors: Fawaz A. Masoud, Heba_tallah Khattab, Mahmoud Al-Karazoon

Abstract:

The database reverse engineering problems and solving processes are getting mature, even though, the academic community is facing the complex problem of knowledge transfer, both in university and industrial contexts. This paper presents a new CASE tool developed at the University of Jordan which addresses an efficient support of this transfer, namely UJ-CASE-TOOL. It is a small and self-contained application exhibiting representative problems and appropriate solutions that can be understood in a limited time. It presents an algorithm that describes the developed academic CASE tool which has been used for several years both as an illustration of the principles of database reverse engineering and as an exercise aimed at academic and industrial students.

Keywords: Reverse engineering, ERD, DBRE, case tools.

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61 Weyl Type Theorem and the Fuglede Property

Authors: M. H. M. Rashid

Abstract:

Given H a Hilbert space and B(H) the algebra of bounded linear operator in H, let δAB denote the generalized derivation defined by A and B. The main objective of this article is to study Weyl type theorems for generalized derivation for (A,B) satisfying a couple of Fuglede.

Keywords: Fuglede Property, Weyl’s theorem, generalized derivation, Aluthge Transformation.

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60 Decision Maturity Framework: Introducing Maturity In Heuristic Search

Authors: Ayed Salman, Fawaz Al-Anzi, Aseel Al-Minayes

Abstract:

Heuristics-based search methodologies normally work on searching a problem space of possible solutions toward finding a “satisfactory" solution based on “hints" estimated from the problem-specific knowledge. Research communities use different types of methodologies. Unfortunately, most of the times, these hints are immature and can lead toward hindering these methodologies by a premature convergence. This is due to a decrease of diversity in search space that leads to a total implosion and ultimately fitness stagnation of the population. In this paper, a novel Decision Maturity framework (DMF) is introduced as a solution to this problem. The framework simply improves the decision on the direction of the search by materializing hints enough before using them. Ideas from this framework are injected into the particle swarm optimization methodology. Results were obtained under both static and dynamic environment. The results show that decision maturity prevents premature converges to a high degree.

Keywords: Heuristic Search, hints, Particle Swarm Optimization, Decision Maturity Framework.

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59 Instability Analysis of Laminated Composite Beams Subjected to Parametric Axial Load

Authors: Alireza Fereidooni, Kamran Behdinan, Zouheir Fawaz

Abstract:

The integral form of equations of motion of composite beams subjected to varying time loads are discretized using a developed finite element model. The model consists of a straight five node twenty-two degrees of freedom beam element. The stability analysis of the beams is studied by solving the matrix form characteristic equations of the system. The principle of virtual work and the first order shear deformation theory are employed to analyze the beams with large deformation and small strains. The regions of dynamic instability of the beam are determined by solving the obtained Mathieu form of differential equations. The effects of nonconservative loads, shear stiffness, and damping parameters on stability and response of the beams are examined. Several numerical calculations are presented to compare the results with data reported by other researchers.

Keywords: Finite element beam model, Composite Beams, stability analysis

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58 Mercury Removal Techniques for Industrial Waste Water

Authors: Amir Shafeeq, Ayyaz Muhammad, Waqas Sarfraz, Ali Toqeer, Shazib Rashid, M. K. Rafiq

Abstract:

The current work focuses on rephrasing the harmful effects of mercury that is being released from a number of sources. Most of the sources are from the industrial waste water. Different techniques of mercury removal have been discussed and a brief comparison among these has been made. The experimental work has been conducted for two most widely used methods of mercury removal and comparison in terms of their efficiency has been made.

Keywords: Mercury, Waste Water, Adsorption.

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57 Stability of Property (gm) under Perturbation and Spectral Properties Type Weyl Theorems

Authors: M. H. M. Rashid

Abstract:

A Banach space operator T obeys property (gm) if the isolated points of the spectrum σ(T) of T which are eigenvalues are exactly those points λ of the spectrum for which T − λI is a left Drazin invertible. In this article, we study the stability of property (gm), for a bounded operator acting on a Banach space, under perturbation by finite rank operators, by nilpotent operators, by quasi-nilpotent operators, or more generally by algebraic operators commuting with T.

Keywords: Weyl’s theorem, Weyl spectrum, polaroid operators, property (gm), property (m).

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56 A Middleware System between WEB and Database Servers

Authors: Mohammad H. Abu-Arqoub, Ihab S. Serhed, Waheeb A. Abu-Dawwas, Rashid M. Al-Azzeh

Abstract:

This paper aims at improving web server performance by establishing a middleware layer between web and database servers, which minimizes the overload on the database server. A middleware system has been developed as a service mainly to improve the performance. This system manages connection accesses in a way that would result in reducing the overload on the database server. In addition to the connection management, this system acts as an object-oriented model for best utilization of operating system resources. A web developer can use this Service Broker to improve web server performance.

Keywords: Database server, Improve performance, Middleware, Web server.

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55 The Capacity of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speech Recognition

Authors: Fawaz S. Al-Anzi, Dia AbuZeina

Abstract:

Speech recognition is of an important contribution in promoting new technologies in human computer interaction. Today, there is a growing need to employ speech technology in daily life and business activities. However, speech recognition is a challenging task that requires different stages before obtaining the desired output. Among automatic speech recognition (ASR) components is the feature extraction process, which parameterizes the speech signal to produce the corresponding feature vectors. Feature extraction process aims at approximating the linguistic content that is conveyed by the input speech signal. In speech processing field, there are several methods to extract speech features, however, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) is the popular technique. It has been long observed that the MFCC is dominantly used in the well-known recognizers such as the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Sphinx and the Markov Model Toolkit (HTK). Hence, this paper focuses on the MFCC method as the standard choice to identify the different speech segments in order to obtain the language phonemes for further training and decoding steps. Due to MFCC good performance, the previous studies show that the MFCC dominates the Arabic ASR research. In this paper, we demonstrate MFCC as well as the intermediate steps that are performed to get these coefficients using the HTK toolkit.

Keywords: Speech recognition, acoustic features, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients.

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54 Long Term Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength of Mortar

Authors: A. Md. Harunur Rashid B. Md. Keramat Ali Molla C. Tarif Uddin Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper represents the results of long term strength of mortar incorporating Rice Husk Ash (RHA). For these work mortar samples were made according to ASTM standard C 109/C. OPC cement was partially replaced by RHA at 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 percent replacement level. After casting all samples were kept in controlled environment and curing was done up to 90 days. Test of mortar was performed on 3, 7, 28, 90, 365 and 700 days. It is noticed that OPC mortar shows better strength at early age than mortar having RHA but at 90 days and onward the picture is different. At 700 days it is observed that mortar containing 20% RHA shows better result than any other samples.

Keywords: OPC, RHA, replacement level, long term, strength.

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53 Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: The Swedish Approach of Transformation

Authors: Fawaz Saad, Hamid Alalwany

Abstract:

Sweden has succeeded to maintain a high level of growth and development and has managed to sustain highly ranked position among the world’s developed countries. In this regard, Swedish universities are playing a vital role in supporting innovation and entrepreneurship at all levels and developing Swedish knowledge economy. This paper is aiming to draw on the experiences of two leading Swedish universities, addressing their transformation approach to create entrepreneurial universities and fulfilling their objectives in the era of knowledge economy. The objectives of the paper include: 1) Introducing the Swedish higher education and its characteristics. 2) Examining the infrastructure elements for innovation and Entrepreneurship at two of the Swedish entrepreneurial universities. 3) Addressing the key aspects of support systems in the initiatives of both Chalmers and Gothenburg universities to support innovation and advance entrepreneurial practices. The paper will contribute to two discourses: 1) Examining the relationship between support systems for innovation and entrepreneurship and the Universities’ policies and practices. 2) Lessons for University leaders to assist the development and implementation of effective innovation and entrepreneurship policies and practices.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial university, Chalmers university, Gothenburg university, innovation and entrepreneurship policies, entrepreneurial transformation.

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52 Durability of Mortar in Presence of Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Md. Harunur Rashid, Md. Keramat Ali Molla, Tarif Uddin Ahmed

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the durability of cement mortar in presence of Rice Husk Ash (RHA). The strength and durability of mortar with different replacement level (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by RHA is investigated here. RHA was manufactured from an uncontrolled burning process. Test samples were prepared with river sand of FM 2.73. Samples were kept in controlled environment up to test time. The results show that addition of RHA was shown better results for 20% replacement level than OPC at 90 days. In durability test all samples passed for 20 cycles except 25% and 30% replacement level.

Keywords: Rice Husk Ash; durability; mortar, graded sand.

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51 The Influence of RHA on the Mechanical Properties of Mortar Heated Up To High Temperature

Authors: Md. Harunur Rashid, S. M. Kamal Uddin, Sobura khatun

Abstract:

The performance of mortar subjected to high temperature and cooled in normal ambient temperature was examined in the laboratory to comply with the situation of burning & cooling of a structure. Four series of cubical (5 X 5 X 5 cm) mortar specimens were made from OPC, and partial replacement (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30%) of OPC by Rice Husk Ash (RHA) produced in the uncontrolled environment. These specimens were heated in electric furnace to 200, 300, 400, 500 and 7000C. The specimens were kept in normal room temperature for cooling. They were then tested for mechanical properties and the results shows that particular 20% RHA mixed mortar shows better fire performance.

Keywords: Fire performance, Rice Husk

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50 Fixed Point Theorems for Set Valued Mappings in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces

Authors: Ismat Beg, Asma Rashid Butt

Abstract:

Let (X,) be a partially ordered set and d be a metric on X such that (X, d) is a complete metric space. Assume that X satisfies; if a non-decreasing sequence xn → x in X, then xn  x, for all n. Let F be a set valued mapping from X into X with nonempty closed bounded values satisfying; (i) there exists κ ∈ (0, 1) with D(F(x), F(y)) ≤ κd(x, y), for all x  y, (ii) if d(x, y) < ε < 1 for some y ∈ F(x) then x  y, (iii) there exists x0 ∈ X, and some x1 ∈ F(x0) with x0  x1 such that d(x0, x1) < 1. It is shown that F has a fixed point. Several consequences are also obtained.

Keywords: Fixed point, partially ordered set, metric space, set valued mapping.

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49 Power of Involvement over Rewards for Retention Likelihood in IT Professionals

Authors: Humayun Rashid, Lin Zhao

Abstract:

Retention in the IT profession is critical for organizations to stay competitive and operate reliably in the dynamic business environment. Most organizations rely on compensation and rewards as primary tools to enhance retention of employees. In this quantitative survey-based study conducted at a large global bank, we analyze the perceptions of 575 information technology (IT) software professionals in India and Malaysia and find that fairness of rewards has very little impact on retention likelihood. It is far more important to actively involve employees in organizational activities. In addition, our findings indicate that involvement is far more important than information flow: the typical organizational communication to keep employees informed.

Keywords: fairness of rewards, information flow, informationinvolvement, retention

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48 Group Velocity Dispersion Management of Microstructure Optical Fibers

Authors: S. M. Abdur Razzak, M. A. Rashid, Y. Namihira, A. Sayeem

Abstract:

A simple microstructure optical fiber design based on an octagonal cladding structure is presented for simultaneously controlling dispersion and leakage properties. The finite difference method with anisotropic perfectly matched boundary layer is used to investigate the guiding properties. It is demonstrated that octagonal photonic crystal fibers with four rings can assume negative ultra-flattened dispersion of -19 + 0.23 ps/nm/km in the wavelength range of 1.275 μm to 1.68 μm, nearly zero ultra-flattened dispersion of 0 ± 0.40 ps/nm/km in a 1.38 to 1.64 μm, and low confinement losses less than 10-3 dB/km in the entire band of interest.

Keywords: Finite difference modeling, group velocity dispersion, optical fiber design, photonic crystal fiber.

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47 A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)

Authors: Muhammad Salam, Nasir Rashid, Shah Khalid, Muhammad Raees Khan

Abstract:

In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.

Keywords: cryptography, decryption, encryption, playfair cipher, traditional cipher.

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46 Gas Flow into Rotary Valve Intake and Exhaust Mechanism in Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: R. Usubamatov, Z. A. Rashid

Abstract:

Simple design of a rotary valve system is capable of controlling intake and exhaust gases, which will eliminate the need of known complex mechanisms. The cost of material and production, maintenance, and noise level of the system can be further reduced. The new mechanism enables the elimination of the overlapping of valves work that reduces gas leakage. This paper examines theoretically the gas flow through the holes of a rotary valve design in a small engine. Preliminary results show that the new gas flow has many positive differences than a conventional poppet-valve system. New dependencies on the gas speed enable the finding of better solutions for the geometry of a rotary valve system that will result in a higher efficiency of an internal-combustion engine of the automotive industry.

Keywords: Gas arrangement, internal combustion engine.

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45 Multi-Context Recurrent Neural Network for Time Series Applications

Authors: B. Q. Huang, Tarik Rashid, M-T. Kechadi

Abstract:

this paper presents a multi-context recurrent network for time series analysis. While simple recurrent network (SRN) are very popular among recurrent neural networks, they still have some shortcomings in terms of learning speed and accuracy that need to be addressed. To solve these problems, we proposed a multi-context recurrent network (MCRN) with three different learning algorithms. The performance of this network is evaluated on some real-world application such as handwriting recognition and energy load forecasting. We study the performance of this network and we compared it to a very well established SRN. The experimental results showed that MCRN is very efficient and very well suited to time series analysis and its applications.

Keywords: Gradient descent method, recurrent neural network, learning algorithms, time series, BP

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44 Embodied Carbon Footprint of Existing Malaysian Green Homes

Authors: Fahanim Abdul Rashid, Muhammad Azzam Ismail

Abstract:

Part and parcel of building green homes (GHs) with favorable thermal comfort (TC) is to design and build with reduced carbon footprint (CF) from embodied energy in the building envelope and reduced operational CF overall. Together, the environmental impact of GHs can be reduced significantly. Nevertheless, there is still a need to identify the base CF value for Malaysian GHs and this can be done by assessing existing ones which can then be compared to conventional and vernacular houses which are built differently with different building materials. This paper underlines the research design and introduces the case studies. For now, the operational CF of the case studies is beyond the scope of this study. Findings from this research could identify the best building material and construction technique combination to build GHs depending on the available skills, financial constraints and the condition of the immediate environment.

Keywords: Embodied carbon footprint, Malaysian green homes.

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43 Energy Consumption and Surface Finish Analysis of Machining Ti6Al4V

Authors: Salman Pervaiz, Ibrahim Deiab, Amir Rashid, Mihai Nicolescu, Hossam Kishawy

Abstract:

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions impose major threat to global warming potential (GWP). Unfortunately manufacturing sector is one of the major sources that contribute towards the rapid increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In manufacturing sector electric power consumption is the major driver that influences CO2 emission. Titanium alloys are widely utilized in aerospace, automotive and petrochemical sectors because of their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Titanium alloys are termed as difficult to cut materials because of their poor machinability rating. The present study analyzes energy consumption during cutting with reference to material removal rate (MRR). Surface roughness was also measured in order to optimize energy consumption.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, CO2 Emission, Ti6Al4V.

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42 The Development of Decision Support System for Waste Management; a Review

Authors: M. S. Bani, Z. A. Rashid, K. H. K. Hamid, M. E. Harbawi, A.B.Alias, M. J. Aris

Abstract:

Most Decision Support Systems (DSS) for waste management (WM) constructed are not widely marketed and lack practical applications. This is due to the number of variables and complexity of the mathematical models which include the assumptions and constraints required in decision making. The approach made by many researchers in DSS modelling is to isolate a few key factors that have a significant influence to the DSS. This segmented approach does not provide a thorough understanding of the complex relationships of the many elements involved. The various elements in constructing the DSS must be integrated and optimized in order to produce a viable model that is marketable and has practical application. The DSS model used in assisting decision makers should be integrated with GIS, able to give robust prediction despite the inherent uncertainties of waste generation and the plethora of waste characteristics, and gives optimal allocation of waste stream for recycling, incineration, landfill and composting.

Keywords: Review, decision support system, GIS and waste management.

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41 Anti-Social Media: Implications of Social Media in the Form of Stressors on Our Daily Lives

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Huma Irfan

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate the role of social media (Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in our daily lives and its implication on our everyday routine in the form of stressors. The study has been validated by a social media survey with 150 social media users belonging to various age groups. The study explores how social media can make an individual anti-social in his or her life offline. To explain the phenomenon, we have proposed and evaluated a model based on social media usage and stressors including burnout and social overload. Results, through correlation and regression tests, have revealed that with increase in social media usage, social overload and burnout also increases. Evidence for the fact that excessive social media usage causes social overload and burnout has been provided in the study.

Keywords: Burnout, emotional exhaustion, fatigue, stressors, social networking, social media, social overload.

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40 A New Approach of Wireless Network Traffic on VPN

Authors: Amir Rashid, M. Saleem Khan, Freeha Zafar

Abstract:

This work presents a new approach of securing a wireless network. The configuration is focused on securing & Protecting wireless network traffic for a small network such as a home or dorm room. The security Mechanism provided both authentication, allowing only known authorized users access to the wireless network, and encryption, preventing anyone from reading the wireless traffic. The mentioned solution utilizes the open source free S/WAN software which implements the Internet Protocol Security –IPSEC. In addition to wireless components, wireless NIC in PC and wireless access point needs a machine running Linux to act as security gateway. While the current configuration assumes that the wireless PC clients are running Linux, Windows XP/VISTA/7 based machines equipped with VPN software which will allow to interface with this configuration.

Keywords: Wireless network security, security network, authentication, encryption and internet protocol security.

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39 Chattering-free Sliding Mode Control for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd Yatim

Abstract:

In this paper, a few chattering-free Sliding Mode Controllers (SMC) are proposed to stabilize an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with gyroscopic effect that is proportional to the rotor speed. The improved switching terms of the controller inherited from the saturation-type function and boundary layer control technique is shown to be able to achieve bounded and asymptotic stability, respectively, while the chattering effect in the input is attenuated. This is proven to be advantageous for AMB system since minimization of chattering results in optimized control effort. The performance of each controller is demonstrated via result of simulation in which the measurement of the total consumed energy and maximum control magnitude of each controller illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), Sliding Mode Control (SMC), chattering-free SMC.

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38 Statistical Optimization of the Enzymatic Saccharification of the Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

Authors: Rashid S. S., Alam M. Z.

Abstract:

A statistical optimization of the saccharification process of EFB was studied. The statistical analysis was done by applying faced centered central composite design (FCCCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). In this investigation, EFB dose, enzyme dose and saccharification period was examined, and the maximum 53.45% (w/w) yield of reducing sugar was found with 4% (w/v) of EFB, 10% (v/v) of enzyme after 120 hours of incubation. It can be calculated that the conversion rate of cellulose content of the substrate is more than 75% (w/w) which can be considered as a remarkable achievement. All the variables, linear, quadratic and interaction coefficient, were found to be highly significant, other than two coefficients, one quadratic and another interaction coefficient. The coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.9898 that confirms a satisfactory data and indicated that approximately 98.98% of the variability in the dependent variable, saccharification of EFB, could be explained by this model.

Keywords: Face centered central composite design (FCCCD), Liquid state bioconversion (LSB), Palm oil mill effluent, Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30.

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37 Stakeholder Background and Knowledge Regarding Green Home Rating in Malaysia

Authors: Muhammad Azzam Ismail, Fahanim Abdul Rashid, Deo Prasad

Abstract:

Green home rating has emerged as an important agenda to practice the principles of sustainability. In Malaysia, the establishment of the 'Green Building Index ' Residential New Construction- (GBI-RNC) has brought this agenda closer to the stakeholders of the local green building industry. GBI-RNC focuses on the evaluation of the environmental impacts posed by houses rather than assessing the Triple-Bottom-Line (TBL) of Sustainability which also include socio-economic factors. Therefore, as part of a wider study, a survey was conducted to gather the backgrounds of green building stakeholders in Malaysia and their responses to a number of exploratory questions regarding the setting up of a framework to rate green homes against the TBL. This paper reports the findings from Section A and B from this survey and discusses them accordingly with a conclusion that forms part of the basis for a new generation green home rating framework specifically for use in Malaysia.

Keywords: Green home rating, Malaysia, stakeholder surveyanalysis

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36 Teacher Professionalisation and Career Commitment

Authors: Fauziah Noordin, Rahmah Mohd Rashid, Rohani Ghani, Rasimah Aripin, , Zabani Darus

Abstract:

Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that teachers have low to moderate levels of professionalisation, high level of career identity and moderate levels of career resilience, and career planning. From the T-tests and F-tests conducted, it was found that gender has a significant impact on career identity whereas age and marital status have significant impact on career planning and also on career identity. The results indicate that there is a higher possibility of male teachers to leave the teaching profession than the female teachers. The result of the T-test on career identity in relation to gender supports this deduction in which female teachers have significantly higher career identity than their male counterparts. Marital status was also found to have a significant impact on career identity.

Keywords: Professionalisation, career identity, career resilience, career planning

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