Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31793
Facilitating Familial Support of Saudi Arabians Living with HIV/AIDS

Authors: Noor Attar


This paper provides an overview of the current situation of HIV/AIDS patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and a literature review of the concepts of stigma communication, communication of social support. These concepts provide the basis for the proposed methods, which will include conducting a textual analysis of materials that are currently distributed to family members of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHIV/A) in KSA and creating an educational brochure. The brochure will aim to help families of PLWHIV/A in KSA (1) understand how stigma shapes the experience of PLWHIV/A, (2) realize the role of positive communication as a helpful social support, and (3) develop the ability to provide positive social support for their loved ones.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Saudi Arabia, social support, stigma communication.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 988


[1] Abolfotouh, M. A., Al Saleh, S. A., Mahfouz, A. A., Abolfotouh, S. M., & Al Fozan, H. M. (2013). Attitudes of Saudi nursing students on AIDS and predictors of willingness to provide care for patients in central Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Nursing, 2(1), 13-24. doi: 10.1177/21582440133499163
[2] Al-Ghanim, S. A. (2005). Exploring public knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia: A survey of primary health care users. Saudi Medical Journal, 26(5), 812-818. Retrieved from:
[3] Al-Mazrou, Y. Y., Al-Jeffri, M. H., Fidail, A. I., Al-Huzaim, N., & El-Gizouli, S. E. (2005). HIV/AIDS epidemic features and trends in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 25(2), 100-4. Retrieved from:
[4] Badahdah, A. M. (2010). Stigmatization of persons with HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(4), 386-392. doi: 10.1177/1043659609360873.
[5] Cawyer, C. S., & Smith‚ÄźDupre', A. (1995). Communicating social support: Identifying supportive episodes in an HIV/AIDS support group. Communication Quarterly, 43(3), 243-258. doi: 10.1080/01463379509369975
[6] Esack, F. (2007). HIV, AIDS and Islam: a workshop manual based on compassion, responsibility and justice. Cape Town: Positive Muslims.
[7] Goldsmith, D. J. (2004). Communicating social support. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[8] Goldshmith, D. J. & Albrecht, T. L. (2011). Social support, social network, and health. T. L Thompson, A. Dorsey, R. Parrott, & K. Miller (Eds.). Handbook of health communication. pp.455-468. NewYork, N.Y: Routledge
[9] Gray, P. B. (2004). HIV and Islam: is HIV prevalence lower among Muslims? Social Science & Medicine, 58(9), 1751-1756. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00367-8.
[10] Krippendorff, K. (2012). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[11] Lickel, B., Schmader, T., Curtis, M., Scarnier, M., & Ames, D. R. (2005). Vicarious shame and guilt. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 8(2), 145-157. doi: 10.1177/1368430205051064
[12] Major, B., & O'Brien, L. T. (2005). The social psychology of stigma. Annual Reviews of Psychology., 56, 393-421. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070137
[13] Meisenbach, R. J. (2010). Stigma management communication: A theory and agenda for applied research on how individuals manage moments of stigmatized identity. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 38(3), 268-292. doi: 10.1080/00909882.2010.490841
[14] Miller, K. I. (2007). Compassionate communication in the workplace: Exploring processes of noticing, connecting, and responding. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 35,223-245. doi: 10.1080/00909880701434208
[15] Pakenham, K. I. (1998). Specification of social support behaviours and network dimensions along the HIV continuum for gay men. Patient Education and Counseling, 34(2), 147-157. Retrieved from
[16] Parker, R., & Aggleton, P. (2003). HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: a conceptual framework and implications for action. Social Science & Medicine, 57(1), 13-24. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00304-0
[17] Reynolds, W. J., & Scott, B. (1999). Empathy: a crucial component of the helping relationship. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 6(5), 363-370. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2850.1999.00228.x
[18] Smith, R. A. (2007). Language of the lost: an explication of stigma communication. Communication Theory, 17(4), 462-485. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2007.00307.x
[19] Smith, R., Rossetto, K., & Peterson, B. L. (2008). A meta-analysis of disclosure of one's HIV-positive status, stigma and social support. AIDS Care, 20(10), 1266-1275. doi: 10.1080/09540120801926977
[20] Smith, R. A. (2011). Stigma, communication and health. T. L. Thompson, A. Dorsey, R. Parrott, & K. Miller (Eds.). Handbook of health communication. pp.455- 468. NewYork, NY: Rutledge
[21] Smith, R. A. (2014). Testing the model of stigma sommunication with a factorial experiment in an interpersonal context. Communication Studies, 65(2), 154-173. doi: 10.1080/10510974.2013.851
[22] Tracy, S. J. (2012). Qualitative research methods: collecting evidence, crafting analysis, communicating impact. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
[23] United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. (n.d.). Retrieved from:
[24] Way, D., & Tracy, S. J. (2012). Conceptualizing compassion as recognizing, relating and (re) acting: a Qualitative study of compassionate communication at hospice. Communication Monographs, 79(3), 292-315. doi: 10.1080/03637751.2012.697630
[25] Freedom House. (2006). Ratings change: SaudiArabia's civil liberties rating improved from a 7 to a 6 due to the growing impact of regional media on press freedom. Freedom in the World. Retrieved from (June 11, 2014).
[26] Harb, A. (2013). Number of Saudi students on U.S. college campuses growing. New America Media. Retrieved from
[27] Saudi Charity Association for AIDS Patients. Retrieved from, 05/15/2014.