Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30135
Exploration of Least Significant Bit Based Watermarking and Its Robustness against Salt and Pepper Noise

Authors: Kamaldeep Joshi, Rajkumar Yadav, Sachin Allwadhi

Abstract:

Image steganography is the best aspect of information hiding. In this, the information is hidden within an image and the image travels openly on the Internet. The Least Significant Bit (LSB) is one of the most popular methods of image steganography. In this method, the information bit is hidden at the LSB of the image pixel. In one bit LSB steganography method, the total numbers of the pixels and the total number of message bits are equal to each other. In this paper, the LSB method of image steganography is used for watermarking. The watermarking is an application of the steganography. The watermark contains 80*88 pixels and each pixel requirs 8 bits for its binary equivalent form so, the total number of bits required to hide the watermark are 80*88*8(56320). The experiment was performed on standard 256*256 and 512*512 size images. After the watermark insertion, histogram analysis was performed. A noise factor (salt and pepper) of 0.02 was added to the stego image in order to evaluate the robustness of the method. The watermark was successfully retrieved after insertion of noise. An experiment was performed in order to know the imperceptibility of stego and the retrieved watermark. It is clear that the LSB watermarking scheme is robust to the salt and pepper noise.

Keywords: LSB, watermarking, salt and pepper, PSNR.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1127396

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 685

References:


[1] Emad T. Khalaf, Norrozila Sulaiman (2011) “A Robust Data Hiding Technique based on LSB Matching,” International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol:5, No:10
[2] Gutub, A. A. A. (2010). Pixel indicator technique for RGB image steganography. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence, 2(1), 56–64. http://doi.org/10.4304/jetwi.2.1.56-64
[3] Gutub A, Ankeer M, Abu-Ghalioun M, Shaheen A, Alvi A (2008) Pixel indicator high capacity technique for RGB image based Steganography. In: WoSPA 2008–5th IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing and its Applications. pp 1–3
[4] Pal, A., & Pramanik, T. (2013). Design of an Edge Detection Based Image Steganography with High Embedding Capacity. Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness in …, 794–800. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-37949-9_69
[5] Jia-Fa, M., Xin-Xin, N., Gang, X., Wei-Guo, S., & Na-Na, Z. (2015). A steganalysis method in the DCT domain. Multimedia Tools and Applications, (180). http://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-015-2708-0
[6] Chang C-C, Hsiao J-Y, Chan C-S (2003) "Finding optimal least-significant-bit substitution in image hiding by dynamic programming strategy". Pattern Recogn 36:1583–1595,
[7] Wang R-Z, Lin C-F, Lin J-C (2001) Image hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm. Pattern Recogn 34:671–683
[8] Thien C-C, Lin J-C, (2003) "A simple and high-hiding capacity method for hiding digit-by-digit data in images based on modulus function". Pattern Recogn 36:2875–2881
[9] Chan C-K, Cheng L-M (2004)"Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution". Pattern Recogn 37:469–474
[10] Wu H-C, Wu N-I,"Tsai C-S, Hwang M-S (2005)"Image steganographic scheme based on pixel-value differencing and LSB replacement methods". IEE Proc Vis Image Signal Process 152:611–615
[11] Luo W, Huang F, Huang J (2010) Edge adaptive image steganography based on LSB matching revisited. Inform Forensic Secur IEEE Trans 5:201–21, 2010
[12] Mielikainen J (2006) LSB matching revisited. Signal Proc Lett IEEE 13:285–287
[13] Dumitrescu S, Wu X, Wang Z, (2003)" Detection of LSB steganography via sample pair analysis." Signal Process IEEE Trans 51:1995–2007,
[14] Ran-Zan Wang, Chi-Fang Lin, Ja-Chen Lin (2000), "Hiding data in images by optimal moderately significant-bit replacement", IEE Electron. Lett. 36 (25) 2069–2070.
[15] Rao, N. V., & Kumari, V. M. (2011). Watermarking in Medical Imaging for Security and Authentication. Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective, 20(3), 148–155.
[16] Joshi K, Yadav R, Allwadhi S., “PSNR and MSE based investigation of LSB” IEEE Proceeding on International Conference on Computational Techniques in Information and Communication Technologies (ICCTICT), 280 - 285, 2016.