Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30124
A Textual Analysis of Prospective Teachers’ Social Justice Identity Development and LGBTQ Advocacy
Authors: Mi Ok Kang
Abstract:This study examined the influences of including LGBTQ-related content in a multicultural teacher education course on the development of prospective teachers’ social justice identities. Appling a content analysis to 53 reflection texts written by participating prospective teachers in response to the relevant course content, this study deduced the stages of social justice identity development (naïve, acceptance, resistance, redefinition, and internalization) that participants reached during the course. The analysis demonstrated that the participants reached various stages in the social identity development model and none of the participants remained at the naïve stage during/after class. The majority (53%) of the participants reached the internalization stage during the coursework and became conscious about the heterosexual privileges they have had and aware of possible impacts of such privilege on their future LGBTQ students. Also the participants had begun to develop pedagogic action plans and devised applicable teaching strategies for their future students based on the new understanding of heteronormativity. We expect this study will benefit teacher educators and educational administrators who want to address LGBTQ-related issues in their multicultural education programs and/or revisit the goals, directions, and implications of their approach.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1125719Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 866
 Gorski, P., Davis, S. N., & Reiter, A. (2013). An examination of the (in)visibility of sexual orientation, heterosexism, homophobia, and other LGBTQ concerns in U.S. multicultural teacher education coursework. Journal of LGBT Youth, 10, 224-248. Doi: 10.1080/19361653.2013.798986.
 Cosier, K., & Saners, J. H. (2007). Queering art teacher education. International Journal of Art and Design Education, 26(1), 21-30
 Rofes, E. (2005). A radical rethinking of sexuality and schooling: Status quo or status queer? Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
 Freire, P. (1970/2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.
 Freire, P. (2005). Teachers as cultural workers: Letters to those who dare teach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
 Gorski, P. C. (2001). Transforming myself to transform my school. Critical Multicultural Pavilion. Retrieved from http://www.edchange.org.
 Cochran-Smith, M. (2014). Walking the road: Race, diversity, and social justice in teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press.
 Gomez, M. L. Allen, A.-R., & Black, R. W. (2007). “Becoming” a teacher. Teachers College Record, 109(9), 2017-2135.
 Hardiman, R. & Jackson, B.W. (1997). Conceptual foundations for social justice courses. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook (pp. 23-29). New York: Routlege.
 Mudrey, R. & Medina-Adams, A.(2006). Attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of pre-service teachers regarding the educational isolation of sexual minority youth. Journal of homosexuality, 51(4), 63-90.
 Dowling, K., Roger, S., & Cummings, A. (2007). Exploring attitudes of future educators about sexual minority youth. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53(4), 401-412
 Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
 Stemler, S. (2001). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 7(17). Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=7&n=17
 Cross Jr. W. (1978). The Thomas and Cross models of psychological nigrescene: A review. Journal of Black Psychology, 5, 13-31.
 Helms, J. E. (1995). An update of Helms’ White and people of color racial identity models. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Hadbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 181-198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 Quiñibes-Riosado, R. (2010). Social identity development and integral theory. Integral Leadership Review, 10(5), 1-21. Retrieved from http://archive-ilr.com/archives-2010/2010-10/ ILRRosado.pdf
 Samuels, D. R. (2013). Social identity development and discordance in an intersectional diversity and inclusiveness workshop. Understanding & Dismantling Privilege, 3(1), 1-18.
 Bell, L. A. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L.A. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds). Teaching for diversity and social justice: A source book (pp. 44-48). New York: Routlege
 Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
 Hooks, B. (1991). Yearning: Race, gender, and cultural politics. Cambridge, MA: South Ends Press.
 Sedgwick, E. K. (1990). Epistemology of the closet. Berkeley: University of California Press.
 Apple, M. W. (1995). Education and power (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
 Kumashiro, K. (2008). The seduction of common sense: How the Right has framed the debate on America's schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
 Mayo, C. (2004). Queering school communities: Ethical curiosity and Gay-Straight Alliances. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 1(3), 23-36.
 Mayo, C. (2009). Access and obstacles: Gay straight alliances attempt to alter school communities. In W. Ayers, T. Quinn, & D. Stovall (Eds.), Handbook of social justice in education (pp. 319-331). New York, NY: Routledge.
 Mayo, J. B. (2013). Critical pedagogy enacted in the Gay-Straight Alliance: New possibilities for a third space in teacher development. Educational Researcher, 42(5) 266-275. Doi: 10.3102/0013189X13491977.
 Linville, D., & Carlson, D. L. (2010). Becoming an ally: Straight friends of LGBTQ high school students. In C. C. Bertram, M. S. Crowley, S.G. Massey (Eds.), Beyond progress and marginalization (pp. 89-110). New York: Peter Lang.
 Marine, S. B. (2011). Stonewall's legacy: Bisexual, gay, lesbian, and transgender students in higher education. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass
 Meyer, E. J. (2009). Handbooks for educators and students working with Gay-Straight Alliances. Journal of LGBT Youth, 6, 317-324.
 Sadowski, M. (2009). Meeting the needs of LGBT youth: A "relational assets" approach. Journal of LGBT Youth, 6,174-198.
 Kosciw, J. b., Greytak, E. A., Diaz, E. M., & Bartkiewicz, M J. (2010). The 2009 National School Climate Survey: The experience of lesbian, gay, bixexual and transgender youth in our nation' schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network (GLSEN).
 Collin, R. (2013). Making space: A gay-straight alliance’s fight to build inclusive environments. Teachers College Record, 115(8), 1-26
 Blackburn, M. V., Clark, C. T., Kenney, L. M, & Smith, J. M. (Eds). (2009). Acting out! Combating homophobia through teacher activism. New York: Teachers College Press.
 Apple, M. W. (2000). Official knowledge. New York: Routledge.
 Beyer, L. (1992). The Personal and the Social in Education. In E. Ross, J. Cornett & G. McCutcheon (eds.), Teacher Personal Theorizing (pp. 239-256). SUNY Press.
 Kumashiro, K. (2010). Against common sense: Teaching and learning toward social justice. New York: Taylor and Francis.
 Rands, K. (2009). Considering transgender people in education. Journal of teacher education, 60(4), 419-431.
 Rolfe, G., Freshwater, D., & Jasper, M. (2001). Critical reflection for nursing and the helping professions: A user’s guide. New York: Palgrave.
 McNaught, B. (1983). On being gay: Thoughts on family, faith, and love. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
 Gordon, L. (1994). What do we say when we hear “Faggot”? Rethinking Schools Special Education, 1, 86-87.
 O’Conor, A. (1995). Who gets called queer in school? Gay teen. New York, NY: Routledge.
 Ciriello, M. Valli L. & Taylor, N. E. (1992). Problem solving is not enough: Reflective teacher education at the Catholic University of America. In L. Valli, L. (Ed.), Reflective teacher education (pp. 99-115). New York: State University of New York Press.
 Valli, L. (1990). Moral approaches to reflective practice. In R. T. Clift, W. R. Houston & M. Pugach (Eds.). Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 39-56). New York: Teachers College Press.
 Cavanagh, S. (1997). Content analysis: Concepts, methods and applications. Nurse Researcher, 4(3), 5-16.
 Kondracki, N. L., Wellman, N. S., & Amundson, D. R. (2002). Content analysis: Review of methods and their applications in nutrition education. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 34(4), 224-230.
 Schreier M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 Alcoff, L. (1991-92). The problem of speaking for others. Cultural Critigue, 20, pp. 5-32
 Page, J. A., & Liston, D. D. (2002). Homophobia in the schools: Student teachers' perceptions and preparation to respond. In K. H. Robinson, Irwin, J., & Ferfolja, T. (Eds.), From here to diversity: The social impact of lesbian and gay issues in education in Australia and New Zealand (pp. 71-82). New York: Routledge.
 Sears, J. (992). Educators, homosexuality, and homosexual students: Are personal feelings related to professional beliefs? In K. Harbeck (Ed.), Coming out of the classroom closet (pp. 29-80). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press
 Maney, D. W., & Cain, R. E. (1997). Preservice elementary teachers' attitudes toward gay and lesbian parenting. Journal of School Health, 67(6), 236-241.
 Sumara, D., & Davis, B. (1999). Interrupting heteronormativity: Toward a queer curriculum theory. Curriculum Inquiry, 29(2), 191-208. Doi: 10.1111/0362-6784.00121.
 Koschoreck, J. W., & Slattery, P. (2006). Meeting all students'needs: Transforming the unjust normativity of heterosexism.In C. Marshall & M. Oliva (Eds. 2nd Ed.), Leadership for social justice: Making revolutions in education (pp. 145-166). New York: Pearson
 Hickman, H. (2011). Disrupting heteronormativity through critical pedagogy and queer theory. In C. S. Malott & B. Portfolio (Eds.), Critical pedagogy in the twenty-first century: A new generation of scholars (pp. 69-86). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
 Cochran-Smith, M. (2010). Toward a theory of teacher education for social justice. In A. Hargreaves, A. Lieberman, M. Fullan, & D. Hopkins (Eds.), Second international handbook of educational change (pp. 445-467). New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
 Cochran-Smith, M., Shakman, K., Jong, C., Terrell, D. G., Barnatt, J., & McQuillan, P. (2009). Good and just teaching: The case for social justice in teacher education. American Journal of Education, 115(3), 347-377
 Josselson, R. (2007). The ethical attitude in narrative research. In D. J. Clandinin (Ed.), Handbook of narrative inquiry: Mapping a methodology (pp. 537-566). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.