Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31103
Feasibility of a Biopolymer as Lightweight Aggregate in Perlite Concrete
Abstract:Lightweight concrete is being used in the construction industry as a building material in its own right. Ultra-lightweight concrete can be applied as a filler and support material for the manufacturing of composite building materials. This paper is about the development of a stable and reproducible ultra-lightweight concrete with the inclusion of poly-lactic acid (PLA) beads and assessing the feasibility of PLA as a lightweight aggregate that will deliver advantages such as a more eco-friendly concrete and a non-petroleum polymer aggregate. In total, sixty-three samples were prepared and the effectiveness of mineral admixture, curing conditions, water-cement ratio, PLA ratio, EPS ratio and perlite ratio on compressive strength of perlite concrete are studied. The results show that PLA particles are sensitive to alkali environment of cement paste and considerably shrank and lost their strength. A higher compressive strength and a lower density was observed when expanded polystyrene (EPS) particles replaced PLA beads. In addition, a set of equations is proposed to estimate the water-cement ratio, cement content and compressive strength of perlite concrete.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124714Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1851
 Łukasz Kotwica, Waldemar Pichór, Wiesława Nocuń-Wczelik (2015). "Study of pozzolanic action of ground waste expanded perlite by means of thermal methods." Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 123(1): 607-613.
 Ozkan Sengul, Senem Azizi, Filiz Karaosmanoglu, Mehmet Ali Tasdemir (2011). "Effect of expanded perlite on the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of lightweight concrete." Energy and Buildings 43(2–3): 671-676.
 İlker Bekir Topçu, Burak Işıkdağ (2008). "Effect of expanded perlite aggregate on the properties of lightweight concrete." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 204(1–3): 34-38.
 ASTM Standard (2009). "ASTM C330/330M, Standard specification for Lightweight Aggregates for structural concrete." ASTM International.
 ASTM Standard (2009). "ASTM C 332, Standard Specification for lightweight aggregates for insulating concrete." ASTM International.
 Atila Gurhan Celik, Ahmet Mahmut Kilic, Gaye Ozgur Cakal. (2013). "Expanded perlite aggregate characterization for use as a lightweight construction raw material." Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing 49(2): 689-700.
 Su lei, Ma Baoguo, Jian Shouwei, Zhao Zhiguang, Liu Min (2013). "Hydration heat effect of cement pastes modified with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose ether and expanded perlite." Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed. 28(1): 122-126.
 Ramazan Demirboğa, Rüstem Gül (2003). "The effects of expanded perlite aggregate, silica fume and fly ash on the thermal conductivity of lightweight concrete." Cement and Concrete Research 33(5): 723-727.
 Abhijeet S. Gandage, V.R. Vinayaka Rao, M.V.N. Sivakumar, A. Vasan, M. Venu, A.B. Yaswanth (2013). "Effect of Perlite on Thermal Conductivity of Self Compacting Concrete." Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 104: 188-197.
 L.-H Yu , H Ou, L.-L Lee (2003). "Investigation on pozzolanic effect of perlite powder in concrete." Cement and Concrete Research 33(1): 73-76.
 İbrahim Türkmen, Abdulhamit Kantarcı (2007). "Effects of expanded perlite aggregate and different curing conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete." Building and Environment 42(6): 2378-2383.
 L., T. F. and Subhan (2006). "Lightweight high strength concrete with expanded polystyrene beads." Mektek 7: 9-15.
 Chen, B. and J. Liu (2004). "Properties of lightweight expanded polystyrene concrete reinforced with steel fiber." Cement and Concrete Research 34(7): 1259-1263.
 Cook, D. J. (1983). "Expanded polystyrene concrete, concrete technology and design." New Concrete Materials, Surrey Univ. Press, London: 41-69.
 Cook, D. J. (1973). "Expanded polystyrene beads as lightweight aggregate for concrete." Precast Concrete 4: 691-693.
 Babu, K. G. and D. S. Babu (2003). "Behaviour of lightweight expanded polystyrene concrete containing silica fume." Cement and Concrete Research 33(5): 755-762.
 Sri Ravindrarajah, R. and A. J. Tuck (1994). "Properties of hardened concrete containing treated expanded polystyrene beads." Cement and Concrete Composites 16(4): 273-277.
 Bing Chen, Long-zhu Chen (2010). "Experimental study of lightweight expanded polystyrene aggregate concrete containing silica fume and polypropylene fibers." Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science) 15(2): 129-137.
 A. Sadrmomtazi, J. Sobhani, M.A. Mirgozar, M. Najimi (2012). "Properties of multi-strength grade EPS concrete containing silica fume and rice husk ash." Construction and Building Materials 35: 211-219.
 Ganesh Babu, K. and D. Saradhi Babu (2004). "Performance of fly ash concretes containing lightweight EPS aggregates." Cement and Concrete Composites 26(6): 605-611.
 Jamal M Khatib, El-Sayed Negim (2013). "Lightweight Concrete Made from Waste Polystyrene and Fly Ash " World Applied Sciences Journal 21(9): 1356-1360.
 Adilson Schackow, Carmeane Effting, Marilena V. Folgueras, Saulo Güths, Gabriela A. Mendes (2014). "Mechanical and thermal properties of lightweight concretes with vermiculite and EPS using air-entraining agent." Construction and Building Materials 57: 190-197.
 Ali A. Sayadi, Juan V. Tapia, Thomas R. Neitzert, G. Charles Clifton (2016). "Effects of expanded polystyrene (EPS) particles on fire resistance, thermal conductivity and compressive strength of foamed concrete." Construction and Building Materials 112: 716–724.
 Chen, B. and N. Liu (2013). "A novel lightweight concrete-fabrication and its thermal and mechanical properties." Construction and Building Materials 44: 691-698.
 Rahmat Madandoust, Malek Muhammad Ranjbar, S. Yasin Mousavi (2011). "An investigation on the fresh properties of self-compacted lightweight concrete containing expanded polystyrene." Construction and Building Materials 25(9): 3721-3731.
 Kan, A. and R. Demirboğa (2007). "Effect of cement and EPS beads ratios on compressive strength and density of lightweight concrete." Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences 14: 158-162.
 Yi Xu, Linhua Jiang, Jinxia Xu, Yang Li (2012). "Mechanical properties of expanded polystyrene lightweight aggregate concrete and brick." Construction and Building Materials 27(1): 32-38.
 Kate Parker, Jean-Philippe Garancher, Samir Shah and Alan Fernyhough (2011). "Expanded polylactic acid –an eco-friendly alternative to polystyrene foam." Journal of Cellular Plastics 47(3): 233-243.
 Garancher, J.-P. and A. Fernyhough (2012). "Crystallinity effects in polylactic acid-based foams." Journal of Cellular Plastics 48(5): 387-397.
 Jean-Philippe Garancher, Kate Parker, Samir Shah, Alan Fernyhough (2010). "Expanded Polylactide (E-PLA): A Realistic Approach to Expanded Polystyrene." Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).
 Kate Parker, Jean-Philippe Garancher, Samir Shah and Alan Fernyhough (2011). "Polylactic Acid (PLA) Foams for Packaging Applications". Handbook of Bioplastics and Biocomposites Engineering Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 161-175.
 Stephanie Weal (2011). "Heat Stability of PLA-Based Foams and its Measurement " BIOFOAMS 2011 Conference.
 J.M. Chi, R. Huang, C.C. Yang, J.J. Chang (2003). "Effect of aggregate properties on the strength and stiffness of lightweight concrete." Cement and Concrete Composites 25(2): 197-205.
 Kearsley, E. P. and P. J. Wainwright (2001). "The effect of high fly ash content on the compressive strength of foamed concrete." Cement and Concrete Research 31(1): 105-112.
 Kearsley, E. P. and P. J. Wainwright (2002). "Ash content for optimum strength of foamed concrete." Cement and Concrete Research 32(2): 241-246.
 D. Saradhi Babua, T, K. Ganesh Babub , T.H. Wee (2005). "Properties of lightweight expanded polystyrene aggregate concretes containing fly ash." Cement and Concrete Research 35(6): 1218-1223.
 ACI Committee (2004). "ACI 211.2, Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Structural Lightweight Concrete " American Concrete Institute (ACI): 1-20.
 ASTM Standard (1999). "ASTM C567, Test method for density of structural lightweight concrete." ASTM International.
 ASTM Standard (2012). "ASTM C495, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Lightweight Insulating Concrete." ASTM International.
 ACI Committee (2011). "ACI 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary." American Concrete Institute (ACI).
 Jeffrey W. Bullard, Hamlin M. Jennings, Richard A. Livingston, Andre Nonat, George W. Scherer, Jeffrey S. Schweitzer, Karen L. Scrivener, Jeffrey J. Thomas (2011). "Mechanisms of cement hydration." Cement and Concrete Research 41(12): 1208-1223.