Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31108
A Global Perspective on Urban Environmental Problems in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey
Abstract:Cities play a vital role in the social fabric of countries and in national and regional economic growth worldwide; however, the environmental effects of such growth need to be assessed and managed better. The critical and most immediate problems faced by cities of developing countries are the health impacts of urban pollution that derive from inadequate water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste services, poor urban and industrial waste management, and air pollution. As globalization continues, earth's natural processes transform local problems into international issues. The aim of this study is to provide a broad overview of the pollution from urban wastes and emissions in Turkey which is a developing country. It is aimed to underline the significance of reorganizing the institutional tools in a worldwide perspective in order to generate coherent solutions to urban problems, and to enhance urban quality.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124171Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1734
 Abderrahman, W.A. (2000) Urban water management in developing arid countries, Water Resour. Dev. 16: 7–20.
 Aneja, V.P., Agarwal, A., Roelle, P.A., Philips, S.P., Tong, Q., Watkins, N. & Yablonsky, R. (2001) Measurements and analysis of criteria pollutants in New Delhi, India, Environmental International 27: 35-42.
 Ayomoh, M.K.O., Oke, S.A., Adedeji, W.O. & Charles-Owaba, O.E. (2007) An approach to tackling the environmental and health impacts of municipal solid waste disposal in developing countries, J. Environ. Management (Article in press).
 Bartone, C., Bernstein, J., Leitmann, J. & Eigen, J. (1994) Toward environmental strategies for cities: Policy considerations for urban environmental management in developing countries. In: Urban Management Programme, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
 Boubel, R.W., Fox, D.L., Turner, D.B. & Stern, A.C. (2006) Fundamentals of Air Pollution, USA.
 Bruce, N., Perez-Padilla, R. & Albalak, R. (2000) Indoor air pollution in developing countries: A major environmental and public health challenge, Bull WHO 78: 1078-1092.
 Frosch, R.A. (1996) Toward the end of waste: reflections on a new ecology for industry, Daedalus 125: 199–212.
 Gulec, N., Gunal, B. & Erler, A. (2001) Assessment of soil and water contamination around an ash disposal site, Environmental Geology 40: 331–344.
 Harpham, T. (1996) Urban health in The Gambia: a review, Health Place 2: 45-49.
 Janczur, R., Walerian, E. & Czechowicz, M. (2006) Influence of vehicle noise emission directivity on sound level distribution in a canyon street. Part I: Simulation program test, Applied Acoustics 67: 643-658.
 Khoder, M.I. (2002) Atmospheric conversion of sulfur dioxide to particulate sulfate and nitrogen dioxide to particulate nitrate and gaseous nitric acid in an urban area, Chemosphere 49: 675-684.
 Korfali, S.I. & Massoud, M. (2003) Assessment of community noise problem in greater Beirut area, Lebanon, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 84: 203–218.
 McMichael, A.J. (2000) The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries, Bull. World Heakth Organ. 78: 1117-1126.
 Moore, M., Gould, P. & Keary, B.S. (2003) Global urbanization and impact on health, Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 206: 269-278.
 Morillas, J.M.B., Escobar, V.G., Sierra, J.A.M., Gómez, R.V. & Carmona, J.T. (2002) An environmental noise study in the city of Cáceres, Spain, Applied Acoustics 63: 1061–1070.
 Muzet, A. (2007) Environmental noise, sleep and heallt, Clinical Review, Sleep Medicine Reviews 11: 135-142.
 Ouis, D. (1999) Exposure to nocturnal road traffic noise: sleep disturbance and its after effects, Noise Health 1: 11–36.
 Rabat, A., Bouyer, J.J., George, O., Le Moal, M. & Mayo, W. (2006) Chronic exposure of rats to noise: Relationship between long-term memory deficits and slow wave sleep disturbances, Behavioural Brain Research 171: 303-312.
 Raimbault, M. & Dubois, D. (2005) Urban soundscapes: Experiences and knowledge, Cities 22: 339-350.
 Sangodoyin, A.Y. & Ipadeola, S.F. (2000) Hazardous wastes: assessing the efficacy of structures and approaches to management in Nigeria, Environmental Management and Health 11: 39–46.
 Schomer, P.D. (2003) Does the Soundscape concept have real utility, In: Internoise 2003, 2825–2826.
 Schulte-Fortkamp, B. (2002) The meaning of annoyance in relation to the quality of acoustic environments, Noise and Health 4: 13–28.
 Stansfeld, S., Haines, M. & Brown, B. (2000) Noise and health in the urban environment, Rev. Environ. Health 15: 43–82.
 Tchobanoglous, G., Theisen, H. & Vigil, S. (1993) Integrated Solid Wsate Management: Engineering Principles and Management Issues, McGraw-Hill, Inc., Singapore.
 Themelis, N.J. (2002) Integrated management of solid wastes for New York City. In: American Society of Mechanical Engineers Proceedings of NAWTEC, 69–86.
 Tong, S.L., von Schirnding, Y. & Prapamontol, T. (2000) Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions, Bull WHO 78: 1068-1077.
 TUIK. (2016) Environmental Statistics, Turkish Statistical Institute, (online). URL: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1019
 Zaim, K.K. (1997) Estimation of health and economic benefits of air pollution abatement for Turkey in 1990 and 1993, Energy Policy 25: 1093-1097.
 Zannin, P.H.T., Diniz, F.B. & Ferreira, J.A.C. (2003) A survey of urban noise annoyance in a large Brazilian city: the importance of a subjective analysis in conjunction with objective analysis, Environmental Impact Assessment Review 23: 245–255.
 Zannin, P.H.T. (2006) Occupational noise in urban buses, Int. J. Industrial Eronomics 36: 901-905.
 Ziadat, A.H. & Mott, H. (2005) Assessing solid waste recycling opportunities for closed campuses, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 16: 250–256.