Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30075
Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content of Aqueous Acetone and Ethanol Extract of Edible Parts of Moringa oleifera and Sesbania grandiflora

Authors: Perumal Siddhuraju, Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani, Marimuthu Sangeethapriya


Aqueous ethanol and aqueous acetone extracts of Moringa oleifera (outer pericarp of immature fruit and flower) and Sesbania grandiflora white variety (flower and leaf) were examined for radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. Ethanol extract of S. grandiflora (flower and leaf) and acetone extract of M. oleifera (outer pericarp of immature fruit and flower) contained relatively higher levels of total dietary phenolics than the other extracts. The antioxidant potential of the extracts were assessed by employing different in vitro assays such as reducing power assay, DPPH˙, ABTS˙+ and ˙OH radical scavenging capacities, antihemolytic assay by hydrogen peroxide induced method and metal chelating ability. Though all the extracts exhibited dose dependent reducing power activity, acetone extract of all the samples were found to have more hydrogen donating ability in DPPH˙ (2.3% - 65.03%) and hydroxyl radical scavenging systems (21.6% - 77.4%) than the ethanol extracts. The potential of multiple antioxidant activity was evident as it possessed antihemolytic activity (43.2 % to 68.0 %) and metal ion chelating potency (45.16 - 104.26 mg EDTA/g sample). The result indicate that acetone extract of M. oleifera (OPIF and flower) and S. grandiflora (flower and leaf) endowed with polyphenols, could be utilized as natural antioxidants/nutraceuticals.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Moringa oleifera, Polyphenolics, Sesbania grandiflora, Underutilized vegetables.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1803


[1] K. Chen, and J. F. Keaney, “Evolving concepts of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease,” Curr. Atheroscler. Rep., vol. 14, pp. 476-483, 2012.
[2] G. Singh, and P. Marimuthu, “Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 54, pp. 174-181, 2006.
[3] L. Jimaima, T. Craige, W. Mark, W. Naiyana, S. Subramanium, and P. Robert, “Phytochemical flavonols, carotenoids and the antioxidant properties of a wide selection of Fijian fruit, vegetables and other readily available foods," Food Chem., vol. 101, pp. 1727-1741, 2007.
[4] N. P. Uusiku, A. Oelofse, K.G. Duodu, M. J. Bester, and M. Faber, “Nutritional value of leafy vegetables of sub-Saharan Africa and their potential contribution to human health: a review,” J Food Compos. Anal., vol. 23, pp. 499–509, 2010.
[5] V. D. Wagh, K. V. Wagh, Y. N. Tandale, and S. A. Salve, “Phytochemical, pharmacological and phytopharmaceutics aspects of Sesbania grandiflora (Hadga): A review,” J. Pharmacy Res., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 889-892, 2009.
[6] P. Yadav, C. R. Harisha, and P. K. Prajapati, “Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of Agasti leaf,” Int. J. Ayurvedic Res., vol.1, no. 4, pp. 231-236, 2010.
[7] N. Boonyaprapatsara, “Thai traditional herbal medicine plant,” Vols. 1 and 4. Bangkok, Thailand, Prachachon Publishers. 2000.
[8] T. Lakshmi, “Hadga (Sesbania Grandiflora Linn.) –A Unique Ayurvedic Remedy,” Int. J. Drug Dev. Res., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1-3, 2011.
[9] T. Ramesh, R. Mahesh, C. Sureka, and B. V. Hazeena, “Cardioprotective effects of Sesbania grandiflora in cigarette smokeexposed rats,” J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., vol. 52, pp. 338-343, 2008.
[10] A. Saravanakumar, S. Vanitha, M. Ganesh, J. Jayaprakash, and N. M. Ramaswamy, “Hypolipidemic activity of Sesbania grandiflora in triton wr-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats,” Int. J. Phytomed., vol. 2, pp. 52- 58, 2010.
[11] S. Sreelatha, P. R. Padma, and E. Umasankari, “Evaluation of anticancer activity of ethanol extract of S. grandiflora (Agati Sesban) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 134, pp. 984-987, 2011.
[12] J. A. Serti, G. Wieze, R. G. Woisky, and J. C. Carvalho,”Antiulcer activity of the ethanol extract of Sesbania grandiflora," Braz. J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 37, pp. 107-111, 2001.
[13] S. Doddola, H. Pasupulati, B. Koganti, and V. S. Koganti, “Evaluation of Sesbania grandiflora for anti urolithiatic and antioxidant properties,” Nat. Med. vol. 62, pp. 300-307, 2008.
[14] L. Pari, A. Uma, “Protective effect of S. grandiflora against erythromycin estolate induced hepatotoxicity,” J. Med. Food, vol. 58, pp. 439-443, 2003.
[15] J. W. Fahey, “Moringa oleifera: a review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties: Part 1,” Trees Life J., vol. 1, pp. 5–19, 2005.
[16] S. Sreelatha, and P. R. Padma, “Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Moringa oleifera Leaves in Two Stages of Maturity,” Plant Foods for Human Nutr., vol. 64, pp. 303- 311, 2009.
[17] Q. E. Muhl, E. S. D. Toit, P. J. Robbertse, “Moringa oleifera (horseradish tree) leaf adaptation to temperature regimes,” Int. J. Agric. Biol., vol. 13, pp. 1021–1024, 2011.
[18] F. Anwar, S. Latir, M. Ashraf, and A.H. Gilan, “Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses,” Phytother. Res., vol. 21, pp. 17-25, 2007.
[19] P. Anjula, K. Pradheep, G. Rita, N. E. Roshini, D. C, Bhandari, “‘Drumstick tree’ (Moringa oleifera Lam.): a multipurpose potential species in India,” Genet. Resour. Crop Evol., vol. 58, pp. 453–460, 2011.
[20] R. Bennett, F. Mellon, J. Pratt, M. Dupont, L. Pernins, and P. Kroon, “Profiling glucosinolates and phenolics in vegetative and reproductive tissues of multi-purpose trees Moringa oleifera L. (horseradish tree) and Moringa stenopetal L,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 51, pp. 3546-5553, 2003.
[21] P. Siddhuraju, and K. Becker, “Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam),” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 15, pp. 2144-2155, 2003.
[22] B. N. Singh, B. R. Singh, R. L. Singh, D. Prakash, R. Dhakarey, G. Upadhyay, and H. B. Singh, “Oxidative DNA damage protective activity, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing potentials of Moringa oleifera,” Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 47, pp. 1109–1116, 2009.
[23] M. K. Roy, M. Takenaka, S. Isobe, and T. Tsushida, “Antioxidant potential, anti-proliferative activities, and phenolic content in watersoluble fractions of some commonly consumed vegetables: Effects of thermal treatment,” Food Chem., vol. 103, pp. 106–114, 2007.
[24] K. Shankar, M. M. Gupta, S. K. Srivastava, D. U. Bawankule, A. Pal, and S. P. S. Khanuja, “Determination of bioactive nitrile glycoside(s) in drumstick (Moringa oleifera) by reverse phase HPLC,” Food Chem., vol. 105, pp. 376–382, 2007.
[25] D. Yammuenart, W. Chavasiri, K. Pongrapeeporn, “Chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam,” Sci. Forum, vol. 3, pp. 80 – 81, 2008.
[26] N. K. Amaglo, R. N. Bennett, L. R. B. Curto, E. A. S. Rosa, V. L. Turco, A. Giuffrida, L. A. Curto, F. Crea, and G. M. Timpo, “Profiling selected phytochemicals and nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera L., grown in Ghana,” Food Chem., vol. 122, pp. 1047– 1054, 2010.
[27] T. T. Kivevele, M. M. Mbarawa, A. Bereczky, and Z. Mate, “Evaluation of the Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Produced from Moringa oleifera Oil,” Energ. Fuel, vol. 25, pp. 5416– 5421, 2011.
[28] K. A. Ghebremichael, K. R. Gunaratna, H. Henriksson, H. Brumer, G, Dalhammar, “A simple purification and activity assay of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed,” Water Res., vol. 39, pp. 2338–44, 2005.
[29] K. Prabhu, K. Murugan, A. Nareshkumar, N. Ramasubramanian, and S. Bragadeeswaran, “Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific J. Trop. Biomed., pp. 124-129, 2011.
[30] H. A. Jerri, K. J. Adolfsen, L. R. McCullough, D. Velegol, and S. B. Velegol, “Antimicrobial Sand via Adsorption of Cationic Moringa oleifera Protein,” Langmuir, vol. 28, pp. 2262–2268, 2012.
[31] K. V. Sashidhara, J. N. Rosaiah, E. Tyagi, R. Shukla, R. Raghubir, and S. M. Rajendran, “Rare dipeptide and urea derivatives from roots of Moringa oleifera as potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agents,” Eur. J. Med. Chem., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 432-6, 2009.
[32] M. V. S. Parvathy, and A. Umamaheshwari, “Cytotoxic effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on human multiple myeloma cell lines,” Trends Med. Res., vol. 2, pp. 44-50, 2007.
[33] R. Gupta, M. Mathur, V. K. Bajaj, P. Katariya, S. Yadav, R. Kamal, and R. S. Gupta, “Evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera in experimental diabetes,” J. Diabet., vol. 4, pp. 164– 171, 2012.
[34] V. S. Manohar, T. Jayasree, K. K. Kishore, L. M. Rupa, R. Dixit, and N. Chandrasekhar, “Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of freshly prepared aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in normal and diabetic rabbits,” J. Chem. Pharm. Res., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 249-253, 2012.
[35] A. A. Hamza, “Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats,” Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 48, pp. 345- 355, 2010.
[36] N. Ara, M. Rashid, and M.S. Amran, “Comparison of Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract with Atenolol on Serum triglyceride, Serum Cholesterol, Blood glucose, heart weight, body weight in Adrenaline Induced Rats,” Saudi J. Biol. Sci., vol. 15, pp. 253-258, 2008.
[37] L. Vijay, and U. Kumar, “Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on normal and dexamethasone suppressed wound healing,” Asian Pacific J. Trop. Biomed., pp. S219-S223, 2012.
[38] M. Oyaizu, “Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activity of products browning reaction prepared from glucosamine,” Jpn. J. Nutr., vol. 44, pp. 307-315, 1986.
[39] G. C. Yen, P. D. Duh, and D. Y. Chuang, “Antioxidant activity of anthroquinones and anthrone,” Food Chem., vol. 70, pp. 437-441, 2000.
[40] M. S. Blios, “Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical,” Nature, vol. 26, pp. 1199-1200, 1958.
[41] R, Re, N, Pellegrini, A, Proteggente, A, Pannala, M, Yang, and R. C. Evans, “Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay,” Free Radical Biol. Med., vol. 26, pp. 1231–1237, 1999.
[42] M. Naim, B. Gestener, A, Bondi, and Y. Birk, “Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of soyabean isoflavones,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 24, pp. 1174–1177, 1976.
[43] S. M. Klein, G. Cohen, and A. I. Cederbaum, “Production of formaldehyde during metabolism of dimethyl sulphoxide by hydroxyl radical generating system,” Biochem., vol. 20, 6006–6012, 1991.
[44] H, Kikuzaki, and N, Nakatani, “Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents,” J. Food Sci., vol. 58, pp. 1407–1410, 1993.
[45] F. Yamaguchi, T. Ariga, Y. Yoshimura, and K. Nakazawa, “Antioxidative and antiglycation activity of garcinol from Garcinia indica fruit rind,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 48, pp. 180–185, 2000.
[46] M. Naczk, and F. Shahidi, “Phenolics in cereals fruits and vegetables: Occurrence, extraction, and analysis,” J. Pharm. Biochem. Anal., vol. 41, pp. 1523–1542, 2006.
[47] B. N. Shyamala, S. Gupta, L. A. Jyothi, and J. Prakash, “Leafy vegetable extracts–antioxidant activity and effect on storage stability of heated oils,” Innovative Food Sci. Emerging Technol., vol. 6, pp.239–245, 2005.
[48] P. Siddhuraju, P.S. Mohan, K, Becker, “Studies on the antioxidant activity of Indian Laburnum (Cassia fistula L.): a preliminary assessment of crude extracts from stem bark, leaves, flowers and fruit pulp,” Food Chem., vol. 79, pp. 61–67, 2002.
[49] R. Amarowicz, R. B. Pegg, P.R. Moghaddam, B. Barl, and J. A. Weil, “Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of selected plant species from Canadian prairies,” Food. Chem., vol. 84, pp. 551– 62, 2004.
[50] S. Kumar, D. Kumar, N. Singh, and B. D. Vasisht. "In Vitro free radicals scavenging and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera pods,” J. Herb Med. Toxicol., vol. 1, pp. 2, pp. 17-22, 2007.
[51] R. Manian, N. Anusuya, P. Siddhuraju, and S, Manian, “The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of two different solvent extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz, Ficus bengalensis L. and Ficus racemosa L,” Food Chem., vol. 107, pp. 1000–1007, 2008.
[52] R, China, S, Dutta, S, Sen, R, Chakrabarti, D, Bhowmik, S, Ghosh, and P. Dhar, “In vitro antioxidant activity of different cultivars of banana flower (Musa paradicicus L.) extracts available in India,” J. Food Sci., vol. 76 no. 9, pp. 1292- 1299, 2011.
[53] T. Serbetci, N. Ozsoy, B. Demircic, A. Can, S. Kultur, and K. H. C. Baser, “Chemical composition of the essential oil and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from fruits and flowers of Hypericum lydium Boiss,” Ind. Crop Prod., vol. 36, pp. 599–606, 2012.
[54] Y, Chung, C, Chien, K, Teng, S, and S, Chou, “Antioxidative and mutagenic propertie Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb & zucc”, Food Chem. vol. 97, pp. 418–425, 2006.
[55] S, Gupta, and J, Prakash, “Studies on Indian green leafy vegetables for their antioxidant activity”, Plant Foods. Hum Nutr, vol. 64, pp. 39–45, 2009.
[56] V. Lobo, A. Phatak, and N. Chandra, “Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Cassia tora Linn leaves,” Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci., vol. 2, pp. 826-832, 2011.
[57] R. L. Prior, X. L. Wu, and K. Schaich, “Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 53, pp. 4290-4302, 2005.
[58] B. Moyo, S. Oyedemi, P. J. Masika, and V. Muchenje, “Polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/sunflower seed cake,” Meat Sci, vol. 91, pp. 441-447, 2012.
[59] A. Djeridane, M. Yousfi, B. Nadjemi, N. Vidal, J. F. Lesgards, and P. Stocker, “Screening of some Algerian medicinal plants for the phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity,” Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 224, pp. 801–809, 2006.
[60] M. A. Ebrahimzadeh, S. N. Nabavi, S. F. Nabavi, B. Eslami, and Z. Rahmani, “Antioxidant and antihaemolytic activities of the leaves of Kefe cumin (Laser trilobum L) Umbelliferae,” Trop. J. Pharmaceutical Res., vol. 9, pp. 5, 441-449, 2010.
[61] W. A. Wannes, B. Mhamdi, J. Sriti, M. B. Jemia, O. Ouchikh, G. Hamdaoui, M. E. Kchouk, and B. Marzouk, “Antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts from myrtle (Myrtus communis var. italica L.) leaf, stem and flower,” Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 48, pp. 1362–1370, 2010.
[62] M. M. Naidu, G, Sulochanamma, S. R. Sampathu, and P. Srinivas, “Studies on extraction and antioxidant potential of green coffee,” Food Chem., vol. 107, pp. 377–384, 2008.
[63] P. Chumark, P. Khunawat, Y. Sanvarinda, S. Phornchirasilp, and N. P. Morales, “The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 116, pp. 439- 446, 2008.
[64] A. S. Zarena, S. Gopal, and R. Vineeth, “Antioxidant, antibacterial and cytoprotective activity of a protein isolated from Sesbania grandiflora Linn. Leaves,” Asian Pac J. Trop. Biomed., pp.1-7, 2012.
[65] R. Xu, H. Ye, Y. Sun, Y. Tu, and X. Zeng, “Preparation, preliminarycharacterization,antioxidant, hepatoprotective and antitumor activities of polysaccharides from the flower of tea plant (Camellia sinensis),” Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 50, pp. 2473–2480, 2012.
[66] J. C. Lee, and K. T. Lim. “Effects of cactus and ginger extracts as dietary antioxidants on reactive oxidant and plasma lipid level,” Food Sci. Biotechnol., vol. 9, pp. 2, 83–88, 2000.