Optimization of NaOH Thermo-Chemical Pretreatment to Enhance Solubilisation of Organic Food Waste by Response Surface Methodology
This study investigates the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of organic food waste on performance of COD solubilisation. Both temperature and alkaline agent were reported to have effect on solubilizing any possible biomass including organic food waste. The three independent variables considered in this pretreatment were temperature (50-90oC), pretreatment time (30-120 minutes) and alkaline concentration, sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.7-15 g/L). The maximal condition obtained were 90oC, 15 g/L NaOH for 2 hours. Solubilisation has potential in enhancing methane production by providing high amount of soluble components at early stage during anaerobic digestion.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1110279Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 S. Verma, “Anaerobic digestion of biodegradable organics in municipal solid wastes” (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University), 2002.
 K. Ziemiński, and M. Frąc, “Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass: Transformations, stages and microorganisms” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 18, 2014, pp. 4127-4139.
 S. Youngsukkasem, S. K. Rakshit, and M. J. Taherzadeh, “Biogas production by encapsulated methane-producing bacteria” Bioresources, vol. 7, no. 1, 2011, pp. 56-65.
 A. R. Tembhurkar, and V. A. Mhaisalkar, “Studies on hydrolysis and acidogenesis of kitchen waste in two phase anaerobic digestion” Journal of the Institution of Public Health Engineers, vol. 2, 2007, pp. 10-18.
 L. Arsova, “Anaerobic digestion of food waste: Current status, problems and an alternative product” (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University), 2010.
 C. Jayashree, G. Janshi, I. T. Yeom, S. A. Kumar and J. R. Banu, “Effect of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of dairy waste activated sludge on the performance of microbial fuel cell” International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 9, 2014, pp. 5732-5742.
 M. L. Torres and M. D. C. Espinosa Lloréns, “Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid waste” Waste Management, vol. 28, no. 11, 2008, pp. 2229-2234.
 J. Marin, K. J. Kennedy, and C. Eskicioglu, “Effect of microwave irradiation on anaerobic degradability of model kitchen waste” Waste Management, vol. 30, no. 10, 2010, pp. 1772-1779.
 A. I. Vavouraki, E. M. Angelis, and M. Kornaros, “Optimization of thermo-chemical hydrolysis of kitchen wastes” Waste Management, vol. 33, no. 3, 2013, pp. 740-745.
 Y. Jin, Z. Hu, and Z. Wen, “Enhancing anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery of dairy manure through microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment” Water research, vol. 43, no. 14, 2009, pp. 3493-3502.
 L. F. Güelfo, C. Álvarez-Gallego, D. Sales, and L. I. Romero, “The use of thermochemical and biological pretreatments to enhance organic matter hydrolysis and solubilization from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)” Chemical Engineering Journal, vo. 168, no. 1, 2011, pp. 249-254.
 S. Hosseini, H. Aziz, C. Syafalni, and M. Kiamahalleh, “Optimization of NaOH thermo-chemical pre-treatment for enhancing solubilisation of rice straw by Response Surface Methodology” In 11th edition of the World Wide Workshop for Young Environmental Scientists (WWW-YES- 2011)-Urban Waters: resource or risks?, no. 15, July 2011.
 A. G. Costa, G. C. Pinheiro, F. G. C. Pinheiro, A. B. Dos Santos, S. T. Santaella, and R. C. Leitão, “The use of thermochemical pretreatments to improve the anaerobic biodegradability and biochemical methane potential of the sugarcane bagasse” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 248, 2014, pp. 363-372.
 G. Jard, C. Dumas, J. P. Delgenes, H. Marfaing, B. Sialve, J. P. Steyer, and H. Carrère, “Effect of thermochemical pretreatment on the solubilization and anaerobic biodegradability of the red macroalga Palmaria palmate” Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 79, 2013, pp. 253-258.
 L. Mendez, A. Mahdy, R. A. Timmers, M. Ballesteros, and C. González- Fernández, “Enhancing methane production of Chlorella vulgaris via thermochemical pretreatments” Bioresource technology, vol. 149, 2013, pp. 136-141.
 R. Uma Rani, S. A. Kumar, S. Kaliappan, I. T. Yeom, and J. R. Banu, “Low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of dairy waste activated sludge for anaerobic digestion process” Bioresource Technology, vol. 103, no. 1, 2012, pp. 415-424.
 C. Li, P. Champagne, and B. C. Anderson, “Effects of ultrasonic and thermo-chemical pre-treatments on methane production from fat, oil and grease (FOG) and synthetic kitchen waste (KW) in anaerobic codigestion” Bioresource technology, vol. 130, 2013, pp. 187-197.
 S. Xie, J. P. frost, P. G. Lawlor, G. Wu, and X. Zhan, “Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment of grass silage on methane production by anaerobic digestion” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 19, 2011, pp. 8748-8744.
 H. Yi, Y. Han, and Y. Zhuo, “Effect of combined pretreatment of waste activated sludge for anaerobic digestion process” Procedia Environmental Sciences, vol. 18, 2013, pp. 716-721.
 L. F. Güelfo, C. Álvarez-Gallego, D. S. Márquez, and L. R. García, “The effect of different pretreatments on biomethanation kinetics of industrial Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes (OFMSW)” Chemical engineering journal, vol. 171, no. 2, 2011, pp. 411-417.
 H. Carrère, B. Sialve, and N. Bernet, “Improving pig manure conversion into biogas by thermal and thermo-chemical pretreatments” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 15, 2009, 3690-3694.
 J. Kim, Y. Yu, and C. Lee, “Thermo-alkaline pretreatment of waste activated sludge at low-temperatures: Effects on sludge disintegration, methane production, and methanogen community structure” Bioresource Technology, vol. 144, 2013, pp. 194-201.
 J. Xu, H. Yuan, J. Lin, and W. Yuan, “Evaluation of thermal, thermalalkaline, alkaline and electrochemical pretreatments on sludge to enhance anaerobic biogas production” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 45, no. 5, 2014, pp. 2531-2536.
 Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “Effect of Ca(OH)2 pretreatment on extruded rice straw anaerobic digestion” Bioresource Technology, vol. 196, pp. 116-122.
 W. T. Chen, J. Ma, Y. Zhang, C. Gai, and W. Qian, “Physical pretreatments of wastewater algae to reduce ash content and improve thermal decomposition characteristics” Bioresource Technology, vol. 169, 2014, pp.816-820.
 V. Czitrom, “One-factor-at-a-time versus designed experiments” The American Statistician, vol. 53, no. 2, May 1999, pp. 126-131.
 K. C. Moo, “R2” in Salkind N. J. ‘Encyclopedia of research design’. pub date: 2010 | online pub date: August 03, 2010 | doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412961288 | Print isbn: 9781412961271 | online isbn: 9781412961288 | publisher: SAGE publications, Inc.
 S. Mannan, A. Fakhru’l-Razi, M. Z. Alam, “Optimization of process parameters for the bioconversion of activated sludge by Penicilium corylophilum, using response surface methodology” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 19, no. 1, 2007, pp. 23-28.
 L. M. L. González, H. Vervaeren, I. P. Reyes, A. Dumoulin, O. R. Romero, and J. Dewulf, “Thermo-chemical pre-treatment to solubilize and improve anaerobic biodegradability of press mud” Bioresource technology, vol. 131, 2013, pp. 250-257.
 I. Ferrer, S. Ponsá, F. Vázquez, and X. Font, “Increasing biogas production by thermal (70 oC) sludge pre-treatment prior to thermophilic anaerobic digestion” Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 42, 2008, pp. 186-192.
 J. C. Costa, S. G. Barbosa, M. M. Alves, and D. Z. Sousa, “Thermochemical pre-and biological co-treatments to improve hydrolysis and methane production from poultry litter” Bioresource Technology, vol. 111, pp. 141-147.
 E. Elbeshbishy, and G. Nakhla, “Batch anaerobic co-digestion of proteins and carbohydrates” Bioresource technology, vol. 116, 2012, pp. 170-178.
 R. Rafique, T. G. Poulsen, A. S. Nizami, J. D. Murphy, and G. Kiely, “Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production” Energy, vol. 35, no. 12, 2010, pp. 4556- 4561.
 P. J. Strong, and D. J. Gapes, “Thermal and thermo-chemical pretreatment of four waste residues and the effect on acetic acid production and methane synthesis” Waste Management, vol. 32, no. 9, 2012, pp. 1669-1677.