Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32299
Pressure Relief in Prosthetic Sockets through Hole Implementation Using Different Materials

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme


Below-knee amputees commonly experience asymmetrical gait patterns. It is generally believed that ischemia is related to the formation of pressure sores due to uneven distribution of forces. Micro-vascular responses can reveal local malnutrition. Changes in local skin blood supply under various external loading conditions have been studied for a number of years. Radionuclide clearance, photo-plethysmography, trans-cutaneous oxygen tension along with other studies showed that the blood supply would be influenced by the epidermal forces, and the rate and the amount of blood supply would decrease with increased epidermal loads being shear forces or normal forces. Several cases of socket designs were investigated using Finite Element Model (FEM) and Design of Experiment (DOE) to increase flexibility and minimize the pressure at the limb/socket interface using ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polyamide 6 (PA6) or Duraform. The pressure reliefs at designated areas where reducing thickness is involved are seen to be critical in determination of amputees’ comfort and are very important to clinical applications. Implementing a hole between the Patellar Tendon (PT) and Distal Tibia (DT) would decrease stiffness and increase prosthesis range of motion where flexibility is needed. In addition, displacement and prosthetic energy storage increased without compromising mechanical efficiency and prosthetic design integrity.

Keywords: Patellar tendon, distal tibia, prosthetic socket, relief areas, hole implementation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1695


[1] Mario C. Faustini, Richard R. Neptune, Richard H. Crawford. “The quasi-static response of compliant prosthetic sockets for transtibial amputees using finite element methods”. Medical Engineering and Physics 28 (2006) 114-121.
[2] Mario C. Faustini, Richard R. Neptune, Richard H. Crawford, William E. Rogers, and Gordon Bosker. “An Experimental and Theoretical Framework for Manufacturing Prosthetic Sockets for Transtibial Amputees”. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 14 No. 3, Sept 2006. 304-310.
[3] Nehme. G. N. (2011), “The Effect of pressure relief in prosthetic sockets on the wear and comfort of BK amputees” In Proceeding of IJTC2011, STLE/ASME International joint Tribology Conference, Los Angeles, California, and IJTC2011-paper # 61004.
[4] Nehme. G. N, Dib. M. “Impact of Pressure Distribution on the Relief Areas of Prosthetic Sockets for transtibial amputees using design of experiment and finite element analysis. J Prosthet Orthot. 2011;23 (4):170Y183.
[5] Nehme. G. N, Ghalambor. S, “Optimization of Important Relief Areas in Prosthetic Sockets for Below Knee amputees Using Design of Experiment and Finite Element Model”. J Prosthet Orthot. 2011; 26 (4):1794Y204.
[6] Elsenbaumer, R. L., Aswath, P. B., Nehme, G. (2003), "High Performance Lubricants and Coatings by Catalyzed PTFE Modification of the Metal Surfaces", University of Texas at Arlington and Platinum Research Cooperation in European Coating Conference: Smart Coatings II Berlin Germany: Vincentz Verlag KG. pp. 1-10.
[7] Nehme, G. N. (2010), "Interaction of Fluorinated catalyst with plain ZDDP oil and commercial oil using 2 rpm cycles testing and DOE analysis under extreme boundary lubrication", STLE 2010- 41044, STLE/ASME International joint Tribology Conference, STLE, San Francisco, California.
[8] Nehme, G. N., and Dib, M. (2010), "Optimization of Mechanism of Boundary Lubrication in Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil Using Design of Experiment", Tribology Transactions, 54, 2, pp.208- 226.
[9] Nehme, G. (2011), "The Tribological Performance of Plain and Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil under 2 Different Rotational Speeds and Extreme Pressure Contact Using Design of Experiment", Tribology Transactions 54,4, pp. 568-588.
[10] Nehme, G. N. (2011), "Interactions of fluorinated catalyst and polutetrafluoroethylene in two different plain zinc dialkyldithiophosphate oils and one fully formulated oil using design of experiment", Lubrication Science, 23, 4, pp.181-201
[11] Nehme, G. N. (2011), "Fluorinated FeF3 catalyst interactions in three different oil formulations using design of experiment optimization and chemistry characterization of tribofilms", Lubrication Science, 23, 4, June 2011, Pages: 153-179
[12] Nehme, G. N., Dib, M. (2011), "Fluorinated mix in plain ZDDP oil and commercial oil using design of experiment analysis of all interactions and fundamental study of fluorinated mix in plain ZDDP oils under 2 different r/min test cycles and extreme boundary lubrication", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 225, 4, pp. 193-211
[13] L. B. Barrentine, An introduction to Design of Experiment, ASQ Quality Press, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1999.