Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30178
Accumulation of Pollutants, Self-purification and Impact on Peripheral Urban Areas: A Case Study in Shantytowns in Argentina

Authors: N. Porzionato, M. Mantiñan, E. Bussi, S. Grinberg, R. Gutierrez, G. Curutchet

Abstract:

This work sets out to debate the tensions involved in the processes of contamination and self-purification in the urban space, particularly in the streams that run through the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. For much of their course, those streams are piped; their waters do not come into contact with the outdoors until they have reached deeply impoverished urban areas with high levels of environmental contamination. These are peripheral zones that, until thirty years ago, were marshlands and fields. They are now densely populated areas largely lacking in urban infrastructure. The Cárcova neighborhood, where this project is underway, is in the José León Suárez section of General San Martín county, Buenos Aires province. A stretch of José León Suarez canal crosses the neighborhood. Starting upstream, this canal carries pollutants due to the sewage and industrial waste released into it. Further downstream, in the neighborhood, domestic drainage is poured into the stream. In this paper, we formulate a hypothesis diametrical to the one that holds that these neighborhoods are the primary source of contamination, suggesting instead that in the stretch of the canal that runs through the neighborhood the stream’s waters are actually cleaned and the sediments accumulate pollutants. Indeed, the stretches of water that runs through these neighborhoods act as water processing plants for the metropolis. This project has studied the different organic-load polluting contributions to the water in a certain stretch of the canal, the reduction of that load over the course of the canal, and the incorporation of pollutants into the sediments. We have found that the surface water has considerable ability to self-purify, mostly due to processes of sedimentation and adsorption. The polluting load is accumulated in the sediments where that load stabilizes slowly by means of anaerobic processes. In this study, we also investigated the risks of sediment management and the use of the processes studied here in controlled conditions as tools of environmental restoration.

Keywords: Bioremediation, pollutants, sediments, urban streams.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1105433

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1518

References:


[1] S. Grinberg, “Agamben, Biopolitics and Shantytowns in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: From colony to colonized,” Agamben and colonialism, pp. 204-208, 2012.
[2] P. Arabindoo, “Rhetoric of the ‘slum’,” City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action, vol. 15, no.6, pp. 636-646, 2011.
[3] V. Rao, "Slum as theory: the South/ Asian city and globalization,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 30, no.1, pp. 225–32, 2006.
[4] G. A. Jones, “Slumming about,” City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action, vol 15, no.6, pp. 696-708, 2011 (doi: 10.1080/13604813.2011.609017).
[5] S. Grinberg, "Educación, biopolítica y gubernamentalidad. Entre el archivo y la actualidad: Estados de un debate," Revista Colombiana de Educación, no. 65, pp. 77-98, 2013
[6] N. Brenner,N. Theodore, “Neoliberalism and the urban condition,” City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action, vol. 9, no.1, pp. 101-107, 2005.
[7] S. Grinberg, S. Dafunchio and M. Mantiñán, “Biopolítica y ambiente en cuestión. Los lugares de la Basura,” Revista Horizontes Sociológicos, vol. 1 no.1, pp. 120-147, 2013.
[8] G. Curutchet, R. Gutierrez and S. Grinberg, “Degradación ambiental y periferia urbana: un estudio transdiciplinario sobre la contaminación en la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires,” Ambiente &Sociedade, vol. 15, pp. 173–194, 2012.
[9] Adapted from Google Maps. https://www.google.com.ar/maps
[10] “Closed Reflux, Colorimetric Method (5220 D),” Standards Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1995.
[11] F. Gelman, R. Binstock and L. Halicz, “Application of the Walkley– Black titration for the organic carbon quantification in organic rich sedimentary rocks,” Fuel, vol. 96, pp. 698-610, 2012.
[12] J.W Morse, F.J. Millero, J.C. Cornwell and D. Richard, “The chemistry of hydrogen sulphide and iron sulphide systems in natural waters,” Earth Science Review, vol. 24, pp. 1–42, 1987.
[13] M. A. Tabatabai, “Sulphur,” in Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. A.L. Page and M. A. Tabatabai, Eds. Madison: American Society of Agronomy Inc., 1982, pp. 501–534.
[14] M. P. Di Nanno, “Acidificación por oxidación del azufre: aspectos microbiológicos y geoquímicos del ciclo en rocas y sedimentos,” Tesis de Maestría, Universidad de Buenos Aires, área Ciencias del Suelo, 2003.
[15] A. M. Ure, P. Quevauviller, H. Montau and B. Griepkin, “Speciation of heavy metals in soil and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission of the European Communities,” International Journal of Environment and Analytical Chemistry, vol. 51, pp. 135–151, 1993.
[16] M. Kersten and U. Förstner, “Geochemical characterization of the potential trace metal mobility in cohesive sediments,” Geo-Marine Letters, vol. 11, pp. 184–187, 1991.
[17] N. Porzionato, M. Mellota, R. Candal and G. Curutchet, “Acid drainage and metal bioleaching by redox potential changes in heavy polluted fluvial sediments,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 825, pp. 496-499, 2014 (doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.825.496).
[18] N. Porzionato, R. Candal and G. Curutchet “Biocatalyzed acidification and metal leaching processes in sediments of polluted urban streams,” International Journal of Environment and Health, vol. 7, pp. 3-14, 2014.
[19] R. Candal, M. Litter, L. Guz, E. LópezLoveira, A. Senn and G. Curutchet, “Alternative treatment of recalcitrant organic contaminants by a combination of biosorption, biological oxidation and advanced oxidation technologies,” Organic Pollutants: Ten Years After the Stockholm Convention-Environmental and Analytical Update, Rijeka: Intech, 2012, pp. 455-472.
[20] Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life. http://ceqgrcqe. ccme.ca/en/index.html#void
[21] Dutch target and intervention values (ESdat). http://www.esdat.net/Environmental%20Standards/Dutch/annexS_I2000 Dutch%20Environmental%20Standards.pdf
[22] Instituto Nacional del Agua (1998). Estudio para la Determinación de Valores Guía, Criterios de Calidad y Procedimientos para el Manejo de Sedimentos a Dragar. (Administración General de Puertos S.E.)
[23] N. Porzionato, R. Candal and G. Curutchet, “Biolixiviación de metales de sedimentos anaeróbicos del Río Reconquista (Argentina) como estrategia potencial de remediación,” in 4-ISEBE, México DF, 2014, submittedforpublication.
[24] N. Porzionato, M. Mellota, R. Candal, G. Curutchet, “Sedimentos fluviales contaminados. Nuevas Minas Potenciales para extraer metales valiosos?,” in XII JATRAMI, San Luis, Argentina, 2014, pp. 217.