Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30517
Impact of Combustion of Water in Fuel on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (Pah-s)Precursors- Formation
Authors: Abdulaziz H. El-Sinawi
Abstract:Some of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the strongest known carcinogens compounds; the majority of them are mostly produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels; Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) where diesel emission is one of the main sources of such compounds available in the ambient air. There is a big concern about the increasing concentration of PAHs in the environment. Researchers are trying to explore optimal methods to reduce those pollutants and improve the quality of air. Water blended fuel is one of the possible approaches to reduce emission of PAHs from the combustion of diesel in urban and domestic vehicles. In this work a modeling study was conducted using CHEMKIN-PRO software to simulate spray combustion at similar diesel engine conditions. Surrogate fuel of (80 % n-heptane and 20 % toluene) was used due to detailed kinetic and thermodynamic data needed for modeling is available for this kind of fuel but not available for diesel. An emulsified fuel with 3, 5, 8, 10 and 20 % water by volume is used as an engine feed for this study. The modeling results show that water has a significant effect on reducing engine soot and PAHs precursors formation up to certain extent.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1073623Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1662
 M.S. Callén, M.T. de la Cruz, J.M. L├│pez, A.M. Mastral; PAH in airborne particulate matter. Carcinogenic character of PM10 samples and assessment of the energy generation impact Original Research Article Fuel Processing Technology, June 2010.
 Göran Bengtsson, Niklas Törneman, Xiuhong Yang; Spatial uncoupling of biodegradation, soil respiration, and PAH concentration in a creosote contaminated soil, Environmental Pollution, Volume 158, Issue 9, , P 2865-2871, 2865-2871, Sept. 2010.
 Staci L. Massey Simonich, Oleksii Motorykin, Narumol Jariyasopit; PAH intermediates: Links between the atmosphere and biological systems, Chemico-Biological Interactions, Sept. 2010.
 Khaiwal Ravindra, Ranjeet Sokhi, René Van Grieken; Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source attribution, emission factors and regulation, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Issue 13, Pages 2895-2921, 2895-2921, April 2008.
 Abhijeet Raj, Markus Sander, Vinod Janardhanan, Markus Kraft; A study on the coagulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters to determine their collision efficiency Combustion and Flame, Volume 157, Issue 3, Pages 523-534, March 2010. Seung-Hyun Chung, Angela Violi; Peri-condensed aromatics with aliphatic chains as key intermediates for the nucleation of aromatic hydrocarbons Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, August 2010.
 XI, J., Zhong, B.J., ÔÇÿReview of Soot in Diesel Combustion Systems- School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Chemical Engineering Technology, 29, NO.6, 2006.
 B.C. Choi, S.K. Choi, S.H. Chung; Soot formation characteristics of gasoline surrogate fuels in counterflow diffusion flames, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2010.
 Khaiwal Ravindra, Ranjeet Sokhi, René Van Grieken; Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source attribution, emission factors and regulation, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Issue 13, Pages 2895-2921, 2895-2921, 2008.
 M. P. Ashok and C. G. Saravanan; ÔÇÿPerformance and Emission of the Emulsified Fuel in a DI Diesel Engine Using Oxygenated Additive Diethyl Ether with Surfactant of Span−80- , 21 (4), pp 1878-1882, Energy Fuels, 2007.
 Siemiatycki, J., Dewar, R., Nadon, L., Gerin, M., Richardson, L., and Wacholder, S., Cancer and petroleum-derived liquids. Results from a case-referent study in Montreal. Scand J Work Environ Health 13, P 493-504, 1987.
 Rosner, G., International Program on Chemical Safety Diesel Fuel and Exhaust Emissions, Environmental Health Criteria 171, Geneva, Report 1996.
 Schlitt, H-G. and Exner, P., "Emission of diesel motors when run on alternative fuels", Glueckauf-Forschungshefte. Vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 278- 282, 1991
 M. Y. E. Selim & M. T. Ghannam; ÔÇÿCombustion Study of Stabilized Water-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsion-; Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects V. 32, Issue 3, p 256-274, 2009
 Xavier Tauzia , Alain Maiboom and Samiur Rahman Shah,ÔÇÿExperimental study of inlet manifold water injection on combustion and emissions of an automotive direct injection Diesel engine-; Energy, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 3628-3639, 2010.
 Y. Yoshimoto, T. Kuramoto, Z. Li , M. Tsukahara;- Influence of Water Content Ratio on Combustion Fluctuation of Diesel Engine Using Emulsified Fuel-; Technical Paper of the JSME, Feb. 1998.
 Samec, N, Kegl, B and Dibble, RW. ÔÇÿNumerical and experimental study of water/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine Fuel 81:2035- 2044, 2002. 17] Zhenyu Tian, William J. Pitz, René Fournet, Pierre-Alexander Glaude, Frédérique Battin-Leclerc; A detailed kinetic modeling study of toluene oxidation in a premixed laminar flame, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2010.
 G.A.M. Janssen, ÔÇÿEmissions of Diesel Engines Running on Different Biofuels and their Health Related Aspects- FACT Foundation. Horsten 1, 5612 AX, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2006.
 Jonny Beyer, Grete Jonsson, Cinta Porte, Margaret M. Krahn; Freek Ariese Analytical methods for determining metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants in fish bile: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 224-244, 2010.
 Bartok, W. and A. F. Sarofim. Eds. Fossil Fuel Combustion: a Source Book. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1991.
 Hall, R. E., ÔÇÿEffect of water/residual oil emulsions on air pollutant emissions and efficiency of commercial boilers-, Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, ASME J. Eng. Power; Vol/Issue: 98:4; P 425-434, 1976.
 M. P. Ashok and C. G. Saravanan, ÔÇÿCombustion Characteristics of Compression Engine Driven by Emulsified Fuel Under Various Fuel Injection Angles-, J. Energy Resour. Technol, Volume 129, Issue 4, 325 (7 pages), 2007.
 Nageli, D. W. and Moses, C. A., ÔÇÿA correlation for soot formation in turbine combustion that includes emulsified fuels-, in Proc. of Symp. on Water-in-Fuel Emulsions in Combustion, ed. R. Walter and J. White. U.S. Department of Transportation, Report No. CG-D-12-78, 1978.
 Lawson, A, Vergeer, E.C., Mitchell, E.W. and Dainty, E.D., "Heavy- Duty Diesel Emission Control", A Review of Technology, vol. 36. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: CIM; p. 238, 1986.
 Radloff, E. and Gautier, C. ,-Diesel Engine NOX reduction Using Charge Air Water Injection-, Transportation Development Centre Transport Canada Proceedings of ICED of ASME: 2005 Fall Technical Conference, Ottawa, Canada, ICEF2005-1235, Sept. 11-14, 2005.
 Heena V. Panchasara, Benjamin M. Simmons, Ajay K. Agrawal, Scott K. Spear and Daniel T. Daly; ÔÇÿ Combustion Performance of Biodiesel and Diesel-Vegetable Oil Blends in a Simulated Gas Turbine Burner-, J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, Volume 131, Issue 3, 031503 (11 pages), 2009.
 Massimiliano Di Domenico, Peter Gerlinger, Manfred Aigner; Development and validation of a new soot formation model for gas turbine combustor simulations Original Research Article Combustion and Flame, Volume 157, Issue 2, P 246-258, 2010.
 Curran, H. J., Pitz, W. J., and Westbrook, C. K., ÔÇÿExtinction and Autoignition of n-Heptane in Counterflow Configuration", Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 28, p. 2029-2037, 2002 UCRLWEB- 204236 Review and release date: May 19, 2004.
 Zhou P.L., Thorp I. ÔÇÿMarine diesel engine emissions and their control-, Department of Marine Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, 1997.
 Yoshimoto, Y., Tsukahara, M., Murayama, T., ÔÇÿStudies on the microexplosion of emulsified fuels-, Trans. JSME (B) 89-0059 B,1989.
 Lasheras, J.C., Fernandez-Pello, A.C. and Dryer, F.L. ÔÇÿExperimental observations on the disruptive combustion of free droplets of multicomponent fuels-. Combustion Science Technology. Vol. 22, pp. 195-209. 1980.
 Spadaccini, L. J. and Pelmas, R., in Symp. On Vaporation and combustion of fuel droplets", American Chemical Society, Div. of Petroleum Chem. San Francisco Meeting, August 29- Sept. 3, 1976.
 Chang Sik Lee, Sung Wook Park and Sang Il Kwon; ÔÇÿAn Experimental Study on the Atomization and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel- Blended Fuels- , Energy Fuels, 19 (5), pp 2201-2208, July 27, 2005.
 Tamjima, H and Takasaki, K and Goldsworthy, L and Taskaishi, T, Diagnosis of combustion with water injection using high-speed visualization and CFDs-, In: THIESEL International Conference on Thermo- and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines, 7 - 10, Valencia, Spain, 2008.
 Hyun Kyu Suh, Hyun Gu Roh, and Chang Sik Lee, ÔÇÿ Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel Diesel Blended Fuel in a Direct Injection Common-Rail Diesel Engine-, J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, Volume 130, Issue 3, 032807 (9 pages), 2008.
 Yung-Sung Lin and Hai-Ping Lin; ÔÇÿSpray characteristics of emulsified castor biodiesel on engine emissions and deposit formation-, Renewable Energy, Volume 36, Issue 12, P. 3507-3516, 2011.
 XI, J., Zhong, B.J., ÔÇÿReview of Soot in Diesel Combustion Systems- School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084,China. Chemical Engineering Technology, 29, NO.6, 2006.
 Miller, J.A., Kee, R.J. and Westbrook, C.K. ÔÇÿChemical Kinetics and Combustion Modeling-. Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, Vol 41:345-387, 1990.
 Abhijeet Raj, Peter L.W. Man, Tim S. Totton, Markus Sander, Raphael A. Shirley, Markus Kraft; New polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) surface processes to improve the model prediction of the composition of combustion-generated PAHs and soot; Carbon, Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 319-332, 2010.
 Glassman, I., Soot formation in combustion processes. 22nd Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (USA), 295-311, 1988.
 Lidong Zhang, Jianghuai Cai, Taichang Zhang, Fei Qi; Kinetic modeling study of toluene pyrolysis at low pressure Combustion and Flame, Volume 157, Issue 9, Pages 1686-1697, 2010.
 Onwudili, J.A., Williams, P.T., "Reaction mechanisms for the decomposition of phenanthrene and naphthalene under hydrothermal conditions", Energy and Resources Research Institute, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK, The journal of supercritical fluids, 2006.
 Violi, A., D-Anna, A., D-Alessio, A., "Modeling of particulate formation in combustion and pyrolysis", Chemical Engineering Science, 54, 3433- 3442, 1999.
 A. H. El-Sinawi; Water- Surrogate Fuel Emulsion Combustion Effect on CO and NOx Emissions, Int. J. of Thermal & Environmental Engineering Volume 1, No.2, P 99-108, 2010.