Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Raghad Alhusari

4 Fuzzy Control of Thermally Isolated Greenhouse Building by Utilizing Underground Heat Exchanger and Outside Weather Conditions

Authors: Raghad Alhusari, Farag Omar, Moustafa Fadel

Abstract:

A traditional greenhouse is a metal frame agricultural building used for cultivation plants in a controlled environment isolated from external climatic changes. Using greenhouses in agriculture is an efficient way to reduce the water consumption, where agriculture field is considered the biggest water consumer world widely. Controlling greenhouse environment yields better productivity of plants but demands an increase of electric power. Although various control approaches have been used towards greenhouse automation, most of them are applied to traditional greenhouses with ventilation fans and/or evaporation cooling system. Such approaches are still demanding high energy and water consumption. The aim of this research is to develop a fuzzy control system that minimizes water and energy consumption by utilizing outside weather conditions and underground heat exchanger to maintain the optimum climate of the greenhouse. The proposed control system is implemented on an experimental model of thermally isolated greenhouse structure with dimensions of 6x5x2.8 meters. It uses fans for extracting heat from the ground heat exchanger system, motors for automatic open/close of the greenhouse windows and LED as lighting system. The controller is integrated also with environmental condition sensors. It was found that using the air-to-air horizontal ground heat exchanger with 90 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness placed 2.5 m below the ground surface results in decreasing the greenhouse temperature of 3.28 ˚C which saves around 3 kW of consumed energy. It also eliminated the water consumption needed in evaporation cooling systems which are traditionally used for cooling the greenhouse environment.

Keywords: Automation, earth-to-air heat exchangers, fuzzy control, greenhouse, sustainable buildings.

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3 Influence of Axial Magnetic Field on the Electrical Breakdown and Secondary Electron Emission in Plane-Parallel Plasma Discharge

Authors: Sabah I. Wais, Raghad Y. Mohammed, Sedki O. Yousif

Abstract:

The influence of axial magnetic field (B=0.48 T) on the variation of ionization efficiency coefficient h and secondary electron emission coefficient g with respect to reduced electric field E/P is studied at a new range of plane-parallel electrode spacing (0< d< 20 cm) and different nitrogen working pressure between 0.5-20 Pa. The axial magnetic field is produced from an inductive copper coil of radius 5.6 cm. The experimental data of breakdown voltage is adopted to estimate the mean Paschen curves at different working features. The secondary electron emission coefficient is calculated from the mean Paschen curve and used to determine the minimum breakdown voltage. A reduction of discharge voltage of about 25% is investigated by the applied of axial magnetic field. At high interelectrode spacing, the effect of axial magnetic field becomes more significant for the obtained values of h but it was less for the values of g.

Keywords: Paschen curve, Townsend coefficient, Secondaryelectron emission, Magnetic field, Minimum breakdown voltage.

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2 Genetic-Based Multi Resolution Noisy Color Image Segmentation

Authors: Raghad Jawad Ahmed

Abstract:

Segmentation of a color image composed of different kinds of regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields. The decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and/or un stationary texture fields. A novel neighborhood-based segmentation approach is proposed. A genetic algorithm is used in the proposed segment-pass optimization process. In this pass, an energy function, which is defined based on Markov Random Fields, is minimized. In this paper we use an adaptive threshold estimation method for image thresholding in the wavelet domain based on the generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) modeling of sub band coefficients. This method called Normal Shrink is computationally more efficient and adaptive because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on sub band data energy that used in the pre-stage of segmentation. A quad tree is employed to implement the multi resolution framework, which enables the use of different strategies at different resolution levels, and hence, the computation can be accelerated. The experimental results using the proposed segmentation approach are very encouraging.

Keywords: Color image segmentation, Genetic algorithm, Markov random field, Scale space filter.

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1 Optimizing Materials Cost and Mechanical Properties of PVC Electrical Cable-s Insulation by Using Mixture Experimental Design Approach

Authors: Safwan Altarazi, Raghad Hemeimat, Mousa Wakileh, Ra'ad Qsous, Aya Khreisat

Abstract:

With the development of the Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products in many applications, the challenge of investigating the raw material composition and reducing the cost have both become more and more important. Considerable research has been done investigating the effect of additives on the PVC products. Most of the PVC composites research investigates only the effect of single/few factors, at a time. This isolated consideration of the input factors does not take in consideration the interaction effect of the different factors. This paper implements a mixture experimental design approach to find out a cost-effective PVC composition for the production of electrical-insulation cables considering the ASTM Designation (D) 6096. The results analysis showed that a minimum cost can be achieved through using 20% virgin PVC, 18.75% recycled PVC, 43.75% CaCO3 with participle size 10 microns, 14% DOP plasticizer, and 3.5% CPW plasticizer. For maximum UTS the compound should consist of: 17.5% DOP, 62.5% virgin PVC, and 20.0% CaCO3 of particle size 5 microns. Finally, for the highest ductility the compound should be made of 35% virgin PVC, 20% CaCO3 of particle size 5 microns, and 45.0% DOP plasticizer.

Keywords: ASTM 6096, mixture experimental-design approach, PVC electrical cable insulation, recycled PVC.

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