Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: beating

7 Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Characteristics and Presenteeism among Hotel Employees

Authors: Ruey-Yu Chen, Yao-Tsung Chang, Ching-Ying Yeh, Yu-Ting Huang

Abstract:

Musculoskeletal problems in the hotel sector have been little studied. The aim of this study was to examine relationships of musculoskeletal pain and work characteristics with presenteeism, i.e., feeling sick but going to work anyway. Data of a self-reported questionnaire were collected from 1,101 employees, who joined the study on a voluntary basis from four hotels in northern Taiwan. The results showed that respondents who were female, were younger, had a higher educational level, and worked in the real-service department had higher presenteeism. There were significant positive associations between presenteeism and heavy loads, frequent beatings or hits of hard objects, improper bench height, employees’ lower limb and lower back pain. Our study results imply that knowledge of work characteristics and employees' musculoskeletal problems could be advantageously used to reduce presenteeism in the workplace.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal pain, absenteeism, presenteeism, hotel employees.

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6 Numerical Study of Flapping-Wing Flight of Hummingbird Hawkmoth during Hovering: Longitudinal Dynamics

Authors: Yao Jie, Yeo Khoon Seng

Abstract:

In recent decades, flapping wing aerodynamics has attracted great interest. Understanding the physics of biological flyers such as birds and insects can help improve the performance of micro air vehicles. The present research focuses on the aerodynamics of insect-like flapping wing flight with the approach of numerical computation. Insect model of hawkmoth is adopted in the numerical study with rigid wing assumption currently. The numerical model integrates the computational fluid dynamics of the flow and active control of wing kinematics to achieve stable flight. The computation grid is a hybrid consisting of background Cartesian nodes and clouds of mesh-free grids around immersed boundaries. The generalized finite difference method is used in conjunction with single value decomposition (SVD-GFD) in computational fluid dynamics solver to study the dynamics of a free hovering hummingbird hawkmoth. The longitudinal dynamics of the hovering flight is governed by three control parameters, i.e., wing plane angle, mean positional angle and wing beating frequency. In present work, a PID controller works out the appropriate control parameters with the insect motion as input. The controller is adjusted to acquire desired maneuvering of the insect flight. The numerical scheme in present study is proven to be accurate and stable to simulate the flight of the hummingbird hawkmoth, which has relatively high Reynolds number. The PID controller is responsive to provide feedback to the wing kinematics during the hovering flight. The simulated hovering flight agrees well with the real insect flight. The present numerical study offers a promising route to investigate the free flight aerodynamics of insects, which could overcome some of the limitations of experiments.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, flight control, computational fluid dynamics, flapping-wing flight.

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5 The Nexus between Migration and Human Security: The Case of Ethiopian Female Migration to Sudan

Authors: Anwar Hassen Tsega

Abstract:

International labor migration is an integral part of the modern globalized world. However, the phenomenon has its roots in some earlier periods in human history. This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of female migration in Africa. In the past, African women migrants were only spouses or dependent family members. But as modernity swept most African societies, with rising unemployment rates, there is evidence everywhere in Africa that women labor migration is a growing phenomenon that deserves to be understood in the context of human security research. This work explores these issues further, focusing on the experience of Ethiopian women labor migrants to Sudan. The migration of Ethiopian people to Sudan is historical; nevertheless, labor migration mainly started since the discovery and subsequent exploration of oil in the Sudan. While the paper is concerned with the human security aspect of the migrant workers, we need to be certain that the migration process will provide with a decent wage, good working conditions, the necessary social security coverage, and labor protection as a whole. However, migration to Sudan is not always safe and female migrants become subject to violence at the hands of brokers, employers and migration officials. For this matter, the paper argued that identifying the vulnerable stages and major problem facing female migrant workers at various stages of migration is a prerequisite to combat the problem and secure the lives of the migrant workers. The major problems female migrants face include extra degrees of gender-based violence, underpayment, various forms of abuse like verbal, physical and sexual and other forms of torture which include beating and slaps. This peculiar situation could be attributed to the fact that most of these women are irregular migrants and fall under the category of unskilled and/or illiterate migrants.

Keywords: Labor migration, human security, trafficking, smuggling, Ethiopia, Sudan.

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4 In Search of Robustness and Efficiency via l1− and l2− Regularized Optimization for Physiological Motion Compensation

Authors: Angelica I. Aviles, Pilar Sobrevilla, Alicia Casals

Abstract:

Compensating physiological motion in the context of minimally invasive cardiac surgery has become an attractive issue since it outperforms traditional cardiac procedures offering remarkable benefits. Owing to space restrictions, computer vision techniques have proven to be the most practical and suitable solution. However, the lack of robustness and efficiency of existing methods make physiological motion compensation an open and challenging problem. This work focusses on increasing robustness and efficiency via exploration of the classes of 1−and 2−regularized optimization, emphasizing the use of explicit regularization. Both approaches are based on natural features of the heart using intensity information. Results pointed out the 1−regularized optimization class as the best since it offered the shortest computational cost, the smallest average error and it proved to work even under complex deformations.

Keywords: Motion Compensation, Optimization, Regularization, Beating Heart Surgery, Ill-posed problem.

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3 How Stock Market Reacts to Guidance Revisions and Actual Earnings Surprises

Authors: Tero Halme, Juho Kanniainen, Markus Nordberg

Abstract:

According to the existing literature, companies manage analysts’ expectations of their future earnings by issuing pessimistic earnings guidance to meet the expectations. Consequently, one could expect that markets price this pessimistic bias in advance and penalize companies more for lowering the guidance than reward for beating the guidance. In this paper we confirm this empirically. In addition we show that although guidance revisions have a statistically significant relation to stock returns, that is not the case with the actual earnings surprise. Reason for this could be that, after the annual earnings report also information on future earnings power is given at the same time.

Keywords: Management guidance, earnings guidance, pessimistic bias

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2 A Model to Study the Effect of Excess Buffers and Na+ Ions on Ca2+ Diffusion in Neuron Cell

Authors: Vikas Tewari, Shivendra Tewari, K. R. Pardasani

Abstract:

Calcium is a vital second messenger used in signal transduction. Calcium controls secretion, cell movement, muscular contraction, cell differentiation, ciliary beating and so on. Two theories have been used to simplify the system of reaction-diffusion equations of calcium into a single equation. One is excess buffer approximation (EBA) which assumes that mobile buffer is present in excess and cannot be saturated. The other is rapid buffer approximation (RBA), which assumes that calcium binding to buffer is rapid compared to calcium diffusion rate. In the present work, attempt has been made to develop a model for calcium diffusion under excess buffer approximation in neuron cells. This model incorporates the effect of [Na+] influx on [Ca2+] diffusion,variable calcium and sodium sources, sodium-calcium exchange protein, Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump, sodium and calcium channels. The proposed mathematical model leads to a system of partial differential equations which have been solved numerically using Forward Time Centered Space (FTCS) approach. The numerical results have been used to study the relationships among different types of parameters such as buffer concentration, association rate, calcium permeability.

Keywords: Excess buffer approximation, Na+ influx, sodium calcium exchange protein, sarcolemmal calcium atpase pump, forward time centred space.

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1 Beating Phenomenon of Multi-Harmonics Defect Frequencies in a Rolling Element Bearing: Case Study from Water Pumping Station

Authors: Fathi N. Mayoof

Abstract:

Rolling element bearings are widely used in industry, especially where high load capacity is required. The diagnosis of their conditions is essential matter for downtime reduction and saving cost of maintenance. Therefore, an intensive analysis of frequency spectrum of their faults must be carried out in order to determine the main reason of the fault. This paper focus on a beating phenomena observed in the waveform (time domain) of a cylindrical rolling element bearing. The beating frequencies were not related to any sources nearby the machine nor any other malfunctions (unbalance, misalignment ...etc). More investigation on the spike energy and the frequency spectrum indicated a problem with races of the bearing. Multi-harmonics of the fundamental defects frequencies were observed. Two of them were close to each other in magnitude those were the source of the beating phenomena.

Keywords: Bearing, beating, spike energy, vibration.

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