Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Shaun Lim

7 Teachers' Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge and Technology Integration in Teaching and Learning in a Small Island Developing State: A Concept Paper

Authors: Aminath Waseela, Vinesh Chandra, Shaun Nykvist,

Abstract:

The success of technology integration initiatives hinges on the knowledge and skills of teachers to effectively integrate technology in classroom teaching. Consequently, gaining an understanding of teachers' technology knowledge and its integration can provide useful insights on strategies that can be adopted to enhance teaching and learning, especially in developing country contexts where research is scant. This paper extends existing knowledge on teachers' use of technology by developing a conceptual framework that recognises how three key types of knowledge; content, pedagogy, technology, and their integration are at the crux of teachers' technology use while at the same time is amenable to empirical studies. Although the aforementioned knowledge is important for effective use of technology that can result in enhanced student engagement, literature on how this knowledge leads to effective technology use and enhanced student engagement is limited. Thus, this theoretical paper proposes a framework to explore teachers' knowledge through the lens of the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK); the integration of technology in classroom teaching through the Substitution Augmentation Modification and Redefinition (SAMR) model and how this affects students' learning through the Bloom's Digital Taxonomy (BDT) lens. Studies using this framework could inform the design of professional development to support teachers to develop skills for effective use of available technology that can enhance student learning engagement.

Keywords: information and communication technology, ICT, in-service training, small island developing states, SIDS, student engagement, technology integration, technology professional development training, technological pedagogical and content knowledge, TPACK

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6 Brokerage and Value-Creation: Trading Practices in the English Market of 20th-Century Maps

Authors: Shaun Lim

Abstract:

This paper presents a 9-month ethnographic case study of the value creating strategies employed by an Oxford market-trader of 20th-century maps. Maps are usually valued and sold as either antique objets d’art or useful navigational tools, with 20th-century maps precariously lying between the boundary of the aesthetic and utilitarian value-regimes. Here, the brokerage practices involved in the framing of outdated, lowly valued maps into vintage commodities will be examined. Ethnographic material of the unstudied market of old maps is introduced and situated in the second-hand, antique and collectible spheres of exchange. The map-trader as a broker is the ethnographic and methodological starting point of this paper. Brokerage is understood through the activity of framing that defines and brackets the value-regimes of commodities with the aid of market and framing devices. The trader’s activities will be examined in three parts. (1) The post-sourcing industry: the altering, mounting and tagging of maps before putting them into market circulation. Mounts, frames and tags are seen as market devices that authenticates and frames maps with aesthetic and symbolic values along with the disentanglement of its use value. (2) The market-display: the constitution of space that encourages the relations of looking at maps as aesthetic objects, while the categorical arrangement of the display contributes to legitimising of the collectability of maps. (3) The salesmanship strategies of the trader: the match-making of customers with maps of meaningful value, and the mediating of knowledge through the verbal articulation of the map’s symbolic values. Ultimately, value is not created in an accumulative sense, but is layered and superimposed to cater to a wide spectrum of patrons. The trader creates demand for his goods by mediating and articulating value-regimes already coherent to potential patrons.

Keywords: art and material culture, brokerage, commodification, framing, markets, value

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5 The Possible Double-Edged Sword Effects of Online Learning on Academic Performance: A Quantitative Study of Preclinical Medical Students

Authors: Atiwit Sinyoo, Sekh Thanprasertsuk, Sithiporn Agthong, Pasakorn Watanatada, Shaun Peter Qureshi, Saknan Bongsebandhu-Phubhakdi

Abstract:

Background: Since the SARS-CoV-2 virus became extensively disseminated throughout the world, online learning has become one of the most hotly debated topics in educational reform. While some studies have already shown the advantage of online learning, there are still questions concerning how online learning affects students’ learning behavior and academic achievement when each student learns in a different way. Hence, we aimed to develop a guide for preclinical medical students to avoid drawbacks and get benefits from online learning that possibly a double-edged sword. Methods: We used a multiple-choice questionnaire to evaluate the learning behavior of second-year Thai medical students in the neuroscience course. All traditional face-to-face lecture classes were video-recorded and promptly posted to the online learning platform throughout this course. Students could pick and choose whatever classes they wanted to attend, and they may use online learning as often as they wished. Academic performance was evaluated as summative score, spot exam score and pre-post-test improvement. Results: More frequently students used online learning platform, the less they attended lecture classes (P = 0.035). High proactive online learners (High PO) who were irregular attendee (IrA) had significantly lower summative scores (P = 0.026), spot exam score (P = 0.012) and pre-post-test improvement (P = 0.036). In the meanwhile, conditional attendees (CoA) who only attended classes with attendance check had significantly higher summative score (P = 0.025) and spot exam score (P = 0.001) if they were in the High PO group. Conclusions: The benefit and drawbacks edges of using an online learning platform were demonstrated in our research. Based on this double-edged sword effect, we believe that online learning is a valuable learning strategy, but students must carefully plan their study schedule to gain the “benefit edge” meanwhile avoiding its “drawback edge”.

Keywords: academic performance, assessment, attendance, online learning, preclinical medical students

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4 A Systematic Review of Pedometer-or Accelerometer-Based Interventions for Increasing Physical Activity in Low Socioeconomic Groups

Authors: Shaun G. Abbott, Rebecca C. Reynolds, James B. Etter, John B. F. de Wit

Abstract:

The benefits of physical activity (PA) on health are well documented. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with poor health, with PA a suggested mediator. Pedometers and accelerometers offer an effective behavior change tool to increase PA levels. While the role of pedometer and accelerometer use in increasing PA is recognized in many populations, little is known in low-SES groups. We are aiming to assess the effectiveness of pedometer- and accelerometer-based interventions for increasing PA step count and improving subsequent health outcomes among low-SES groups of high-income countries. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and SportDiscus databases were searched to identify articles published before 10th July, 2015; using search terms developed from previous systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria are: low-SES participants classified by income, geography, education, occupation or ethnicity; study duration minimum 4 weeks; an intervention and control group; wearing of an unsealed pedometer or accelerometer to objectively measure PA as step counts per day for the duration of the study. We retrieved 2,142 articles from our database searches, after removal of duplicates. Two investigators independently reviewed titles and abstracts of these articles (50% each) and a combined 20% sample were reviewed to account for inter-assessor variation. We are currently verifying the full texts of 430 articles. Included studies will be critically appraised for risk of bias using guidelines suggested by the Cochrane Public Health Group. Two investigators will extract data concerning the intervention; study design; comparators; steps per day; participants; context and presence or absence of obesity and/or chronic disease. Heterogeneity amongst studies is anticipated, thus a narrative synthesis of data will be conducted with the simplification of selected results into percentage increases from baseline to allow for between-study comparison. Results will be presented at the conference in December if selected.

Keywords: accelerometer, pedometer, physical activity, socioeconomic, step count

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3 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome from the Fluoroacetate Producing Plant, Dichapetalum Cymosum

Authors: Selisha A. Sooklal, Phelelani Mpangase, Shaun Aron, Karl Rumbold

Abstract:

Organically bound fluorine (C-F bond) is extremely rare in nature. Despite this, the first fluorinated secondary metabolite, fluoroacetate, was isolated from the plant Dichapetalum cymosum (commonly known as Gifblaar). However, the enzyme responsible for fluorination (fluorinase) in Gifblaar was never isolated and very little progress has been achieved in understanding this process in higher plants. Fluorinated compounds have vast applications in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and fine chemicals industries. Consequently, an enzyme capable of catalysing a C-F bond has great potential as a biocatalyst in the industry considering that the field of fluorination is virtually synthetic. As with any biocatalyst, a range of these enzymes are required. Therefore, it is imperative to expand the exploration for novel fluorinases. This study aimed to gain molecular insights into secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Gifblaar using a high-throughput sequencing-based approach. Mechanical wounding studies were performed using Gifblaar leaf tissue in order to induce expression of the fluorinase. The transcriptome of the wounded and unwounded plant was then sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 26.4 million short sequence reads were assembled into 77 845 transcripts using Trinity. Overall, 68.6 % of transcripts were annotated with gene identities using public databases (SwissProt, TrEMBL, GO, COG, Pfam, EC) with an E-value threshold of 1E-05. Sequences exhibited the greatest homology to the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana (27 %). A total of 244 annotated transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between the wounded and unwounded plant. In addition, secondary metabolic pathways present in Gifblaar were successfully reconstructed using Pathway tools. Due to lack of genetic information for plant fluorinases, a transcript failed to be annotated as a fluorinating enzyme. Thus, a local database containing the 5 existing bacterial fluorinases was created. Fifteen transcripts having homology to partial regions of existing fluorinases were found. In efforts to obtain the full coding sequence of the Gifblaar fluorinase, primers were designed targeting the regions of homology and genome walking will be performed to amplify the unknown regions. This is the first genetic data available for Gifblaar. It has provided novel insights into the mechanisms of metabolite biosynthesis and will allow for the discovery of the first eukaryotic fluorinase.

Keywords: biocatalyst, fluorinase, gifblaar, transcriptome

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2 A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Physical Activity Intervention in a Low Socioeconomic Population: Focus on Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions

Authors: Shaun G. Abbott, Rebecca C. Reynolds, John B. F. de Wit

Abstract:

Low physical activity (PA) levels are a major public health concern in Australia. There is some evidence that PA interventions can increase PA levels via various methods, including online delivery. Low Socioeconomic Status (SES) people participate in less PA than the rest of the population, partly due to poor self-regulation behaviors associated with socioeconomic characteristics. Interventions that involve a particular method of self-regulation, Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII), has regularly achieved healthy behavior change, but few studies focus on PA behavior outcomes and no studies examining the effect of MCII on the PA behaviors of low SES people has been done. In this study, a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) will deliver MCII for PA behavior change to individuals of relative disadvantage for the first time. The current pilot study will predict sample size for a future full RCT and test the hypothesis that sedentary participants from areas of relative socioeconomic disadvantage of Sydney, who learn the MCII technique will be more physically active, have improved anthropometry and psychological indicators at the completion of a 12-week intervention compared to baseline and control. Eligible participants of relative socioeconomic disadvantage will be randomly assigned to either the ‘PA Information Plus MCII Intervention Group’ or a ‘PA Information-Only Control Group’. Both groups will attend a baseline and 12-week face-to-face consultation; where PA, anthropometric and psychological data will be gathered. The intervention group will be guided through an MCII session at the baseline appointment to establish a PA goal to aim to achieve over 12 weeks. Other than these baseline and 12-week consultations, all participant interaction will occur online. All participants will receive a ‘Fitbit’ accelerometer to record objectively. PA as a daily step count, along with a PA diary for the duration of the study. PA data will be recorded on a personalized online spreadsheet. Both groups will receive a standard PA information email at weeks 2, 4, and 8. The intervention group will also receive scripted follow-up online appointments to discuss goal progress. The current pilot study is in recruitment stage with findings to be presented at the conference in December if selected.

Keywords: implementation intentions, mental contrasting, motivation, pedometer, physical activity, socioeconomic

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1 Removing Maturational Influences from Female Youth Swimming: The Application of Corrective Adjustment Procedures

Authors: Clorinda Hogan, Shaun Abbott, Mark Halaki, Marcela Torres Catiglioni, Goshi Yamauchi, Lachlan Mitchell, James Salter, Michael Romann, Stephen Cobley

Abstract:

Introduction: Common annual age-group competition structures unintentionally introduce participation inequalities, performance (dis)advantages and selection biases due to the effect of maturational variation between youth swimmers. On this basis, there are implications for improving performance evaluation strategies. Therefore the aim was to: (1) To determine maturity timing distributions in female youth swimming; (2) quantify the relationship between maturation status and 100-m FC performance; (3) apply Maturational-based Corrective Adjustment Procedures (Mat-CAPs) for removal of maturational status performance influences. Methods: (1) Cross-sectional analysis of 663 female (10-15 years) swimmers who underwent assessment of anthropometrics (mass, height and sitting height) and estimations of maturity timing and offset. (2) 100-m front-crawl performance (seconds) was assessed at Australian regional, state, and national-level competitions between 2016-2020. To determine the relationship between maturation status and 100-m front-crawl performance, MO was plotted against 100-m FC performance time. The expected maturity status - performance relationship for females aged 10-15 years of age was obtained through a quadratic function (y = ax2 + bx + c) from unstandardized coefficients. The regression equation was subsequently used for Mat-CAPs. (3) Participants aged 10-13 years were categorised into maturity-offset categories. Maturity offset distributions for Raw (‘All’, ‘Top 50%’ & ‘Top 25%’) and Correctively Adjusted swim times were examined. Chi-square, Cramer’s V and ORs determined the occurrence of maturation biases for each age group and selection level. Results—: (1) Maturity timing distributions illustrated overrepresentation of ‘normative’ maturing swimmers (11.82 ± 0.40 years), with a descriptive shift toward the early maturing relative to the normative population. (2) A curvilinear relationship between maturity-offset and swim performance was identified (R2 = 0.53, P < 0.001) and subsequently utilised for Mat-CAPs. (3) Raw maturity offset categories identified partial maturation status skewing towards biologically older swimmers at 10/11 and 12 years, with effect magnitudes increasing in the ‘Top 50%’ and ‘25%’ of performance times. Following Mat-CAPs application, maturity offset biases were removed in similar age groups and selection levels. When adjusting performance times for maturity offset, Mat-CAPs was successful in mitigating against maturational biases until approximately 1-year post Peak Height Velocity. The overrepresentation of ‘normative’ maturing female swimmers contrasted with the substantial overrepresentation of ‘early’ maturing male swimmers found previously in 100-m front-crawl. These findings suggest early maturational timing is not advantageous in females, but findings associated with Aim 2, highlight how advanced maturational status remained beneficial to performance. Observed differences between female and male maturational biases may relate to the differential impact of physiological development during pubertal years. Females experience greater increases of fat mass and potentially differing changes in body shape which can negatively affect swim performance. Conclusions: Transient maturation status-based participation and performance advantages were apparent within a large sample of Australian female youth 100-m FC swimmers. By removing maturity status performance biases within female youth swimming, Mat-CAPs could help improve participation experiences and the accuracy of identifying genuinely skilled female youth swimmers.

Keywords: athlete development, long-term sport participation, performance evaluation, talent identification, youth competition

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