Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Makarand Hastak

4 Strategic Investment in Infrastructure Development to Facilitate Economic Growth in the United States

Authors: Arkaprabha Bhattacharyya, Makarand Hastak

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented in terms of its global reach and economic impacts. Historically, investment in infrastructure development projects has been touted to boost the economic growth of a nation. The State and Local governments responsible for delivering infrastructure assets work under tight budgets. Therefore, it is important to understand which infrastructure projects have the highest potential of boosting economic growth in the post-pandemic era. This paper presents relationships between infrastructure projects and economic growth. Statistical relationships between investment in different types of infrastructure projects (transit, water and wastewater, highways, power, manufacturing etc.) and indicators of economic growth are presented using historic data between 2002 and 2020 from the U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). The outcome of the paper is the comparison of statistical correlations between investment in different types of infrastructure projects and indicators of economic growth. The comparison of the statistical correlations is useful in ranking the types of infrastructure projects based on their ability to influence economic prosperity. Therefore, investment in the infrastructures with the higher rank will have a better chance of boosting the economic growth. Once, the ranks are derived, they can be used by the decision-makers in infrastructure investment related decision-making process.

Keywords: economic growth, infrastructure development, infrastructure projects, strategic investment

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3 Pre-Treatment of Anodic Inoculum with Nitroethane to Improve Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Rajesh P.P., Md. Tabish Noori, Makarand M. Ghangrekar

Abstract:

Methanogenic substrate loss is reported to be a major bottleneck in microbial fuel cell which significantly reduces the power production capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE) of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Nitroethane is found to be a potent inhibitor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in rumen fermentation process. Influence of nitroethane pre-treated sewage sludge inoculum on suppressing the methanogenic activity and enhancing the electrogenesis in MFC was evaluated. MFC inoculated with nitroethane pre-treated anodic inoculum demonstrated a maximum operating voltage of 541 mV, with coulombic efficiency and sustainable volumetric power density of 39.85 % and 14.63 W/m3 respectively. Linear sweep voltammetry indicated a higher electron discharge on the anode surface due to enhancement of electrogenic activity while suppressing methanogenic activity. A 63 % reduction in specific methanogenic activity was observed in anaerobic sludge pre-treated with nitroethane; emphasizing significance of this pretreatment for suppressing methanogenesis and its utility for enhancing electricity generation in MFC.

Keywords: coulombic efficiency, methanogenesis inhibition, microbial fuel cell, nitroethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2 Feasibilty and Penetration of Electric Vehicles in Indian Power Grid

Authors: Kashyap L. Mokariya, Varsha A. Shah, Makarand M. Lokhande

Abstract:

As the current status and growth of Indian automobile industry is remarkable, transportation sectors are the main concern in terms of Energy security and climate change. Rising demand of fuel and its dependency on other countries affects the GDP of nation. So in this context if the 10 percent of vehicle got operated in Electrical mode how much saving in terms of Rs and in terms of liters is achieved has been analyzed which is also a part of Nations Electric mobility mission plan. Analysis is also done for converting unit consumption of Electricity of Electric vehicle into equivalent fuel consumption in liters which shows that at present tariff rate Electrical operated vehicles are far more beneficial. It also gives benchmark to the authorities to set the tariff rate for Electrical vehicles. Current situation of Indian grid is shown and how the Gap between Generation and Demand can be reduced is analyzed in terms of increasing generation capacity and Energy Conservation measures. As the certain regions of country is facing serious deficit than how to take energy conservation measures in Industry and especially in rural areas where generally Energy Auditing is not carried out that is analyzed in context of Electric vehicle penetration in near future. Author was a part of Vishvakarma yojna where in 255 villages of Gujarat Energy losses were measured and solutions were given to mitigate them and corresponding report to the authorities of villages was delivered.

Keywords: vehiclepenetration, feasibility, Energyconservation, future grid, Energy security, pf controller

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1 Rhizospheric Oxygen Release of Hydroponically Grown Wetland Macrophytes as Passive Source for Cathodic Reduction in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Chabungbam Niranjit Khuman, Makarand Madhao Ghangrekar, Arunabha Mitra

Abstract:

The cost of aeration is one of the limiting factors in the upscaling of microbial fuel cells (MFC) for field-scale applications. Wetland macrophytes have the ability to release oxygen into the water to maintain aerobic conditions in their root zone. In this experiment, the efficacy of rhizospheric oxygen release of wetland macrophytes as a source of oxygen in the cathodic chamber of MFC was conducted. The experiment was conducted in an MFC consisting of a three-liter anodic chamber made of ceramic cylinder and a 27 L cathodic chamber. Untreated carbon felts were used as electrodes (i.e., anode and cathode) and connected to an external load of 100 Ω using stainless steel wire. Wetland macrophytes (Canna indica) were grown in the cathodic chamber of the MFC in a hydroponic fashion using a styrofoam sheet (termed as macrophytes assisted-microbial fuel cell, M-MFC). The catholyte (i.e., water) in the M-MFC had negligible contact with atmospheric air due to the styrofoam sheet used for maintaining the hydroponic condition. There was no mixing of the catholyte in the M-MFC. Sucrose based synthetic wastewater having chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 3000 mg/L was fed into the anodic chamber of the MFC in fed-batch mode with a liquid retention time of four days. The C. indica thrived well throughout the duration of the experiment without much care. The average dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and pH value in the M-MFC were 3.25 mg/L and 7.07, respectively, in the catholyte. Since the catholyte was not in contact with air, the DO in the catholyte might be considered as solely liberated from the rhizospheric oxygen release of C. indica. The maximum COD removal efficiency of M-MFC observed during the experiment was 76.9%. The inadequacy of terminal electron acceptor in the cathodic chamber in M-MFC might have hampered the electron transfer, which in turn, led to slower specific microbial activity, thereby resulting in lower COD removal efficiency than the traditional MFC with aerated catholyte. The average operating voltage (OV) and open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 294 mV and 594 mV, respectively, were observed in M-MFC. The maximum power density observed during polarization was 381 mW/m³, and the maximum sustainable power density observed during the experiment was 397 mW/m³ in M-MFC. The maximum normalized energy recovery and coulombic efficiency of 38.09 Wh/m³ and 1.27%, respectively, were observed. Therefore, it was evidenced that rhizospheric oxygen release of wetland macrophytes (C. indica) was capable of sustaining the cathodic reaction in MFC for field-scale applications.

Keywords: hydroponic, microbial fuel cell, rhizospheric oxygen release, wetland macrophytes

Procedia PDF Downloads 23